The Biblical Exodus Story Is Fiction

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By Staks Rosch | 6 April 2012

HUFFINGTON POST — Shortly after I started to question my belief in God, I remember talking to my rabbi about Passover and the Exodus from Egypt. My rabbi knew that I was starting to doubt the supernatural and ridiculous aspects of the story. He told me in confidence that while the basic story is historical fact, the supernatural elements might have been an exaggeration or might not have actually happened at all. He assured me, however, that even though there might not have been plagues of frogs and Moses might not have parted the Red Sea, the Jews were slaves in Egypt, and the important thing is that there was an Exodus and that this is the core of what Passover is about. Except, in reality, there wasn’t actually an Exodus. I have since learned that the Jews were never slaves in Egypt and that the entire story of Exodus is fiction.

When I first heard that there was not a shred of evidence discovered in the Sinai Desert that a large number of Jews had wandered for 40 years, I thought that wasn’t such a big deal. I mean, it’s a desert, right? Sand storms probably just swallowed up all the evidence. The more I looked into the story, however, the more I realized that the lack of evidence was actually a pretty big problem. According to the book of Exodus, a lot of Jews were wandering this desert, and it seems extremely unlikely (bordering on impossible) for this many people to leave absolutely no trace, especially when traces have been found for smaller groups of people which predated the Exodus in that same desert.

Just like the lack of evidence is itself strong evidence against the war between the Nephites and the Lamanites in the Americas as told in the Book of Mormon, the same is true with the Exodus story in the Torah.

Still, I didn’t think all that much about it until years later, when I stumbled upon the article called, “Did Jewish Slaves Build the Pyramids?“ by Brian Dunning. This article really got me thinking about the Exodus story again. Dunning’s article reinforced my skepticism about the Exodus story and fueled my feelings of betrayal. I was taught for most of my life that it was a historical fact that the Jews were slaves in Egypt. This “history” was part of my cultural identity as a Jew. Even when I gave up the ridiculous, superstitious beliefs associated with Judaism, I could still proudly feel connected to the Jewish culture, which was grounded in a deep history of liberation from slavery. […]


10 Comments on The Biblical Exodus Story Is Fiction

  1. Unfortunately, the author’s first detour from truth was following the rabbi. Most religious Jews do not take the Scriptures literally or historically; instead, they incorporate mystical and gnostic interpretations which originated (ironically) from Babylonian captivity. These gnostic ideas are found in the Talmud and the Zohar (chief text of the Kabbalah). These writings are not based not on the Holy Scriptures (the Torah or Pentateuch, which is part of the Tanakh) but on the traditions of men.

    From there, the author compounds his error by comparing the biblical account to the Book of Mormon, which is comparing apples to oranges, or even to durian (stinky fruit). For decades, archaeologists have tested and demonstrated the historicity of Scripture: “In addition to Jericho, places such as Haran, Hazor, Dan, Megiddo, Shechem, Samaria, Shiloh, Gezer, Gibeah, Beth Shemesh, Beth Shean, Beersheba, Lachish, and many other urban sites have been excavated, quite apart from such larger and obvious locations as Jerusalem or Babylon. Such geographical markers are extremely significant in demonstrating that fact, not fantasy, is intended in the Old Testament historical narratives.” (CRI)

    In contrast to the Bible, which is a proven guidebook to the ancient Middle East, NONE of the cities and places mentioned in the Book of Mormon can be found or substantiated by any Mormon authority, historian, or secular scientists. The only reasonable conclusion is they are—unfortunately for millions who believe the story—entirely fictitious. View the movie, “the Bible vs. The Book of Mormon” for details (it can be found online).

    So, that leaves us with the author’s claim that there is no evidence of the biblical Exodus. But the real questions are these: 1) Have they been looking in the right place? and 2) Have they been looking in the right time? There are reasonable, historic and scientific answers to both these questions. The first question is wonderfully addressed in the documentary film, “PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE: EXODUS,” which presents amazing archaeological evidence of the biblical Exodus, including:

    • The Ipuwer Papyrus• The Berlin Fragment• The Joseph Statue & Tomb• The Semitic Ruler’s Palace with Twelve Pillars in Avaris• The Walls of Jericho & the Burnt Grain of Jericho• The Merneptah Stele• The Amarna Letters

    Attempts to date the Exodus in the film were fascinating, but didn’t resolve all discrepancies. However, another researcher took the film’s premise, and did a tremendous job solving and reconciling the timeline differences between secular and biblical history. So, to all readers—skeptics and believers alike—please view this film, as well as the two YouTube movies freely available online: “How Long Were the Israelites in Egypt?” and “Were the Pyramids Built Before the Flood?”

    Together, these will remove significant rational roadblocks to receiving the historicity of the biblical account of the Exodus. As far as the supernatural aspect of the account, the very fact you’re able to read with your eyes and understand with your mind, while your heart beats and your lungs breathe involuntarily is proof that life itself is miraculous. Matter cannot come from nothing; and life cannot come from non-life; such a belief violates all laws of science and logic.

    • Tacitus the 1st century Roman historian had a position on the Exodus and the Jews.

      The Jews are said to have been refugees from the island of Crete who settled in the remotest corner of Libya in the days when, according to the story, Saturn was driven from his throne by the aggression of Jupiter.note This is a deduction from the name Judaei by which they became known: the word is to be regarded as a barbarous lengthening of Idaei, the name of the people dwelling around the famous Mount Ida in Crete. A few authorities hold that in the reign of Isis the surplus population of Egypt was evacuated to neighboring lands under the leadership of Hierosolymus and Judas.note Many assure us that the Jews are descended from those Ethiopians who were driven by fear and hatred to emigrate from their home country when Cepheus was king.note There are some who say that a motley collection of landless Assyriansnote occupied a part of Egypt, and then built cities of their own, inhabiting the lands of the Hebrews and the nearer parts of Syria. Others again find a famous ancestry for the Jews in the Solymi who are mentioned with respect in the epics of Homer:note this tribe is supposed have founded Jerusalem and named it after themselves.

      Most authorities, however, agree on the following account. The whole of Egypt was once plagued by a wasting disease which caused bodily disfigurement. So pharaoh Bocchorisnote went to the oracle of Hammonnote to ask for a cure, and was told to purify his kingdom by expelling the victims to other lands, as they lay under a divine curse. Thus a multitude of sufferers was rounded up, herded together, and abandoned in the wilderness. Here the exiles tearfully resigned themselves to their fate. But one of them, who was called Moses, urged his companions not to wait passively for help from god or man, for both had deserted them: they should trust to their own initiative and to whatever guidance first helped them to extricate themselves from their present plight. They agreed, and started off at random into the unknown. But exhaustion set in, chiefly through lack of water, and the level plain was already strewn with the bodies of those who had collapsed and were at their last gasp when a herd of wild asses left their pasture and made for the spade of a wooded crag. Moses followed them and was able to bring to light a number of abundant channels of water whose presence he had deduced from a grassy patch of ground. This relieved their thirst. They traveled on for six days without a break, and on the seventh they expelled the previous inhabitants of Canaan, took over their lands and in them built a holy city and temple.

      In order to secure the allegiance of his people in the future, Moses prescribed for them a novel religion quite different from those of the rest of mankind. Among the Jews all things are profane that we hold sacred; on the other hand they regard as permissible what seems to us immoral. In the innermost part of the Temple, they consecrated an image of the animal which had delivered them from their wandering and thirst, choosing a ram as beast of sacrifice to demonstrate, so it seems, their contempt for Hammon.note The bull is also offered up, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis.note They avoid eating pork in memory of their tribulations, as they themselves were once infected with the disease to which this creature is subject.note. They still fast frequently as an admission of the hunger they once endured so long, and to symbolize their hurried meal the bread eaten by the Jews is unleavened. We are told that the seventh day was set aside for rest because this marked the end of their toils. In course of time the seductions of idleness made them devote every seventh year to indolence as well. Others say that this is a mark of respect to Saturn, either because they owe the basic principles of their religion to the Idaei, who, we are told, were expelled in the company of Saturn and became the founders of the Jewish race, or because, among the seven stars that rule mankind, the one that describes the highest orbit and exerts the greatest influence is Saturn. A further argument is that most of the heavenly bodies complete their path and revolutions in multiples of seven.

      Whatever their origin, these observances are sanctioned by their antiquity. The other practices of the Jews are sinister and revolting, and have entrenched themselves by their very wickedness. Wretches of the most abandoned kind who had no use for the religion of their fathers took to contributing dues and free-will offerings to swell the Jewish exchequer; and other reasons for their increasing wealth way be found in their stubborn loyalty and ready benevolence towards brother Jews. But the rest of the world they confront with the hatred reserved for enemies. They will not feed or intermarry with gentiles. Though a most lascivious people, the Jews avoid sexual intercourse with women of alien race. Among themselves nothing is barred. They have introduced the practice of circumcision to show that they are different from others. Proselytes to Jewry adopt the same practices, and the very first lesson they learn is to despise the gods, shed all feelings of patriotism, and consider parents, children and brothers as readily expendable. However, the Jews see to it that their numbers increase. It is a deadly sin to kill an unwanted child,note and they think that eternal life is granted to those who die in battle or execution – hence their eagerness to have children, and their contempt for death. Rather than cremate their dead, they prefer to bury them in imitation of the Egyptian fashion, and they have the same concern and beliefs about the world below. But their conception of heavenly things is quite different. The Egyptians worship a variety of animals and half-human, half-bestial forms, whereas the Jewish religion is a purely spiritual monotheism. They hold it to be impious to make idols of perishable materials in the likeness of man: for them, the Most High and Eternal cannot be portrayed by human hands and will never pass away. For this reason they erect no images in their cities, still less in their temples. Their kings are not so flattered, the Roman emperors not so honored. However, their priests used to perform their chants to the flute and drums, crowned with ivy, and a golden vine was discovered in the Temple; and this has led some to imagine that the god thus worshipped was Prince Liber,note, the conqueror of the East. But the two cults are diametrically opposed. Liber founded a festive and happy cult: the Jewish belief is paradoxical and degraded.

      • Abraham came from “Ur of the Chaldees” (Genesis 11:28-31; 15:7), the southernmost portion of ancient Sumer, and from there we have a clear record of the origin of the ancient Hebrews, through Abraham’s son Isaac, as well as the Ishmaelites—who fathered some (but not all) of what became Arab nations today.

        While the writings and opinions of a variety of scholars are generally helpful to consider, many historians have found it far easier to recognize the historicity of the biblical account, especially considering that archaeological finds have never disproved, but only support and cement what is already recorded in the Bible. Finding harmony between secular and biblical history is not at all difficult; but where it becomes divisive is among those who reject the supernatural accounts recorded in the Bible (such as the case with most Darwinian evolutionists and atheistic humanists).

        The important thing is that we are always engaged in the relentless pursuit of truth. The trouble today is that while many claim to be in this pursuit, they never arrive at it. It’s in vogue to be “searching” but never finding. In contrast, God declared, “And ye shall seek me, and find me, when ye shall search for me with all your heart” (Jeremiah 29:13). Of course, the word here for “heart” means not just with our emotion, but all of our mind, will, conscience, intellect, and soul. Unfortunately, most “seekers” simply stop at what seems right, or feels good to them subjectively, without regard for ultimate, objective truth.

        It is understandable why many have anti-Semitic bias today; but the truth is that the biblical account does not exonerate, but rather excoriates, the Jews for their rebellion and wickedness (which was the whole point behind their Babylonian and Assyrian captivity). Indeed, even now, national Israel is still outside of the parameters of God, which is why they reject the New Testament—which foretells of coming judgment against their nation, until they “look upon Him whom they pierced” and mourn (Zechariah 12:10, John 19:37).

        (And since hundreds of biblical prophecies have been fulfilled in exact detail, it behooves serious students and scholars alike to consider the ramifications of prophecies yet to come.)

        However, Israel is not the only nation that is acting wickedly. In fact, Bible prophecy indicates that as the end of this earth age approaches, virtually all mankind will reject their Creator, mock his Son, and basically thumb their nose at God (2 Peter 3:3-7). This is tragic, considering that the good news of the gospel, as explained in the Scriptures (i.e. John 3:16-18) reveals God’s plan to save not only the Jews, but to all who recognize and receive Jesus as Lord.

        The rejection of God’s truth is precisely why we are living in increasingly perilous times today. We are living in the days of which the Bible foretold, when “evil men and seducers will grow worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived” (2 Timothy 3:13). The father of lies, of course, is identified as none other than Satan, by whose “sorcery all the nations [are] deceived” (Revelation 18:23).

        To be freed from this global spiritual and political deception, we must simply look to the words of Jesus, who declared “I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man comes to the Father, except through me” (John 14:5).

        • I agree. As a roadmap to the past, the present, and the future the Bible is true and a witness to anyone who invests the time. Although most do not recognize that as Jesus said God is a spirit and you worship him in spirit and in truth which demands faith. Faith is the great stumbling block for many, even within the Church.

          The ancient language of Egypt during the rule of the Pharaohs and the era of Abraham was Egyptian or Coptic. The Arabic language was introduced into Egypt many centuries later after the death of Jesus when the Muslims invaded Egypt and introduced Islam as the official religion of Egypt.
          Egypt today still uses the Coptic language in orthodox Christianity to distinguish themselves from the Muslims. Let us keep this fact in mind that the Egyptians are not Arabs, but simply speak Arabic as an official language in recent times, since the Koran was written and read in Arabic.
          Islam as a religion introduced by Muhammad and his followers was introduced over a thousand years after the death of Jesus and prior to all that time the language of Egypt was Coptic. With this thought in mind let us follow the ancient account of the birth of Ishmael, Abraham’s first born son with the Egyptian woman named Hagar.
          The account is given in Genesis 6: 1
          1 Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. But she had an Egyptian maidservant named Hagar; so she said to Abram, “The LORD has kept me from having children. Go, sleep with my maidservant; perhaps I can build a family through her.” Abram agreed to what Sarai said. 3 So after Abram had been living in Canaan ten years, Sarai his wife took her Egyptian maidservant Hagar and gave her to her husband to be his wife. 4 He slept with Hagar, and she conceived. When she knew she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress. 5 Then Sarai said to Abram, “You are responsible for the wrong I am suffering. I put my servant in your arms, and now that she knows she is pregnant, she despises me. May the LORD judge between you and me.” 6 “Your servant is in your hands,” Abram said. “Do with her whatever you think best.” Then Sarai mistreated Hagar; so she fled from her. 7 The angel of the LORD found Hagar near a spring in the desert; it was the spring that is beside the road to Shur.
          From this account, Ishmael would be half Hebrew and half Egyptian from his mother’s side. It can be assumed that the family spoke both Coptic and Hebrew for both the Hebrews and the Egyptians traveled back and forth, from one land to the other.
          Arabic however is a language of the people of the province of Arabia, an area which is located south of Asia, which is between the continent of Africa and south of Asia, identified as the Arabian Peninsula. They have no historical or blood ties to Abraham, however Abraham had blood ties to the Egyptians of Africa. The Jews were slaves in Egypt for a long time and many most likely planted seeds and bore children with the Egyptians. Hence it is very likely that many of the Egyptian families are a mixture of Hebrew and Egyptian.
          All these put together, it can be deduced that Ishmael, the son of Abraham and of Hagar is genetically Egyptian and Hebrew and not Arabic.

          Hence he has little or no ties to Islam, Arabic, or to the Muslims as claimed by Muslims.
          The Egyptian may speak Arabic but they are not Arabs, just as many African nations speak English as their official language but they are not British. Religion or enslavement imposed upon a people does not change the genetic makeup of those people, but at best it only modifies their language. Ishmael is African Egyptian, but not Arabic.

          9 “When you enter the land which the Lord your God gives you, you shall not learn to 1a imitate the detestable things of those nations.
          10 “There shall not be found among you anyone a who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, one who uses divination, one bwho practices witchcraft, or one who interprets omens, or a sorcerer,
          11 or one who casts a spell, aor a medium, or a spiritist, or one who calls up the dead.
          12 “For whoever does these things is detestable to the Lord; and a because of these detestable things the Lord your God will drive them out before you.
          13 “a You shall be 1 blameless before the Lord your God.
          14 “For those nations, which you shall dispossess, listen to those who a practice witchcraft and to diviners, but as for you, the Lord your God has not allowed you to do so.
          15 “aThe Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your 1 countrymen, you shall listen to him.
          16 “This is a according to all that you asked of the Lord your God in Horeb on the day of the assembly, saying, ‘Let me not hear again the voice of the Lord my God, let me not see this great fire anymore, or I will die.’
          17 “a The Lord said to me, ‘They have 1 spoken well.
          18 ‘I will raise up a prophet from among their 1 countrymen like you, and aI will put My words in his mouth, and b he shall speak to them all that I command him.
          19 ‘aIt shall come about that whoever will not listen to My words which he shall speak in My name, I Myself will require it of him.
          20 ‘But the prophet who speaks a word a presumptuously in My name which I have not commanded him to speak, or b which he speaks in the name of other gods, 1 that prophet shall die.’
          21 “1 You may say in your heart, ‘How will we know the word which the Lord has not spoken?’
          22 “a When a prophet speaks in the name of the Lord, if the thing does not come about or come true, that is the thing which the Lord has not spoken. The prophet has spoken it b presumptuously; you shall not be afraid of him.

          HE WHO GIVES OF HIS SEED TO MOLECH INCURS NO PUNISHMENT UNLESS HE DELIVERS IT TO MOLECH AND CAUSES IT TO PASS THROUGH THE FIRE. IF HE GAVE IT TO MOLECH BUT DID NOT CAUSE IT TO PASS THROUGH THE FIRE, OR THE REVERSE, HE INCURS NO PENALTY, UNLESS HE DOES BOTH. Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 64a Soncino 1961 Edition, page 437 Following the Mishnah is a discussion among the sages. One of the Talmud Sages, Rabbi Ashi, comments as follows:
          R. Ashi propounded: What if one caused his blind or sleeping son to pass through, (3) or if he caused his grandson by his son or daughter to pass through? — One at least of these you may solve. For it has been taught: [Any men … that giveth any of his seed unto Molech; he shall he put to death … And I will set my face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people;] because he hath given of his seed unto Molech. Why is this stated? — Because it is said, there shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire. From this I know it only of his son or daughter. Whence do I know that it applies to his son’s son or daughter’s son too? From the verse, [And if the people of the land do any ways hide their eyes from the man] when he giveth of his seed unto Molech [and kill him not: Then I will … cut him off.]
          — Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 64b
          Soncino 1961 Edition, page 439

          Rabbi Dr. Freedman, one of the translators of the Soncino Tractate Sanhedrin, clarifies the passage. In a footnote, Rabbi Dr. Freedman confirms that the Talmud Sages use “seed” to denote living children, in the same sense as the Biblical translators understand the term in the above Biblical quotes. In this footnote, Rabbi Dr. Freedman paraphrases the question from Rabbi Ashi:
          3. Is ‘thou shalt not cause to pass’ applicable only to a son who can naturally pass through himself, but not to a blind or sleeping son, who must be led or carried, or does it apply to all?
          Rabbi Dr. Freedman Other footnotes within the same context clarify the fine point of distinction being drawn in the Mishnah and subsequent debates among the sages:
          5. Lev. XVIII, 21. This proves that the offence consists of two parts; (I) formal delivery to the priests, and (2) causing the seed to pass through the fire.
          Rabbi Dr. Freedman (2) 5. As two separate offences, proving that giving one’s seed to Molech is not idolatry. The differences [sic] is, that if one sacrificed to Molech, or caused his son to pass through the fire to some other deity, he is not punished. Rabbi Dr. Freedman (3) Following the Mishnah, Sanhedrin 64a and 64b contain a rousing debate between the Sages concerning:
          * the circumstances under which worshipping an idol is idolatry,
          * which idols may be worshipped without indulging in idolatry,
          * which parts of child sacrifice in what combination are punishable, and
          * how children may be sacrificed without violating Leviticus.
          JEWS SHOULD READ 1 KINGS 11:1-11; AMOS 5:22-27!

    • This is partly true. Remarkably, it was even true in the time of the apostle John when he wrote the book of Revelation by divine inspiration. Consider these two examples:

      “I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and [I know] the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but [are] the synagogue of Satan. (Rev. 2:9)

      “Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.” (Rev 3:9)

      And so, the hatred many bear toward the Jews and Israel today stems from the fact that there are many “fake jews” running the world today. Many of them are even (or especially) religious Jews—those who teach the wicked Babylonian Talmud.

      But there are genuine Jews today—and the Lord God knows those who are his. That is largely what the coming 7-year Tribulation is all about. It is called “the time of Jacob’s trouble” because Jacob is a name for Israel (from the patriarchal line—Abraham, Isaac, Jacob).

      During the Great Tribulation, a time we are nearing when Antichrist will be revealed and declare himself to be God, two thirds of the Jews will die in the judgment of that nation.

      And so, as a biblical Christian, I do not give a “free pass” to the Jews. They will be judged by God, along with every other wicked nation on the planet.

      There is no argument that Israel is key to the current establishment of globalism and the NWO. Jerusalem is a hub of the world, because Satan is preparing it as an international city precisely so he can fulfill his desire to be “worshipped as God” (2 Thessalonians 2:3-4).

      The mess of the mystery religion of Babylon has many tentacles today—Judaism, Freemasonry, Catholicism, Islam, and the New Age. All are being syncretized or amalgamated into a false religion which will include a false trinity: The Beast, Antichrist, and the False Prophet.

      While we can see the foreshadowing of Bible prophecy emerging today, the Scriptures are clear that these figures cannot and will not be revealed until after the rapture, or “catching up” of all true followers of Christ, which represent His bride.

      But God is not “through” with the Jew. Israel and Jerusalem are destined to be “trampled by the Gentiles” up until the Second Coming of Christ as the end of the seven year Tribulation. At that time, as the Apostle Paul wrote,

      “And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The Deliverer will come out of Zion, And He will turn away ungodliness from Jacob; For this [is] My covenant with them, When I take away their sins.” (Romans 11:26-27)

      So, the wicked Jews will be destroyed. And the wicked Gentiles will also be judged for their treatment of the Jews, at the “sheep and goat judgment.” (Read Matthew 25, especially verse 31-46.)

      As the Apostle Peter said in Acts 10:34, “God is no respecter of persons.” In other words, the free gift of Salvation through his son, Jesus the messiah, is available to all who will believe and receive it.

      The Gospel, which means “good news” [of salvation and deliverance from sin and death] is obtained by grace, through faith—not of works, so that no person may boast (of their good works). See Ephesians 2:8-9.

      To conclude, there is no question we are living in increasingly perilous times, of which the Scriptures warned. However, those who have put their faith and hope in Christ alone have nothing to fear from the evil men and seducers of this world, whether they be Jew or Gentile.

      Psalm 37 contains a beautiful prophecy, the theme of which runs throughout the Bible. I recommend reading all of it, but here are the opening lines:

      [[A Psalm] of David.]] Fret not thyself because of evildoers, neither be thou envious against the workers of iniquity. For they shall soon be cut down like the grass, and wither as the green herb. Trust in the LORD, and do good; [so] shalt thou dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed….

      Time is growing short for this planet as governments of the world unite in rebellion and wickedness against the Lord, and against his Anointed (see Psalm 2). Therefore, it is imperative that all who wish to be saved from judgment repent and turn to God, committing themselves to Jesus as the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6).

      The only thing keeping judgment from flying presently is the longsuffering and loving character of God, who desires that none should perish, but that all should repent (see 2 Peter 3).

      The problems of this world are not political, but spiritual. There will be no political solution, and no peace, until Jesus returns as the Prince of Peace. Time is running short for the nations, and for all who reject Christ as Savior. But those who put their hope and trust to follow Him will be saved.

      • The END of this “AGE” – The New World Order! It is the EDOMITE JEWS who are bringing the N.W.O. about!

        Esdras 6:9 …”For Esau is the end of this age, and Jacob is the beginning of the age that follows”…

        The Jews are of Esau from Idumea, and therefore not of Israel or Judah; Jewish Encyclopedia, 1925, vol. 5, page 41.

        Roman general Hyrcanus captured Edom/Idumea and its population was integrated into the Judean community around 126BC

        “Strictly speaking, it is incorrect to call an ancient Israelite a Jew or to call a contemporary Jew an Israelite or Hebrew.” Jewish Almanac 1980.

        The non Israelite Edomite Judeans said –

        John 8:31–36 , 31 Then Jesus said to those Jews who believed Him, “If you abide in My word, you are My disciples indeed. 32 And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.” 33 They answered Him, “We are Abraham’s descendants, and have never been in bondage to anyone”.

        Therefore they are Judeans but not of the tribe of Judah and not the participants of the Israelite Exodus from Egypt

  2. Do a story on Immanuel Velikovsky. He published his books in the 1950s and was attacked and ignored in spite of the popularity of his books, Worlds In Collision et al…….they put a whole new light on the events described in Exodus. Today, only astrophysicist mathematician James McCanney is carrying on where Velikovsky was correct, and where he was incorrect.

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