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A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: The Fabian Society

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From Trotskyism to Radical Positivism: How Albert Wohlstetter Became the Leading Authority on Nuclear Strategy for America

By Cynthia Chung | 18 February 2022

STRATEGIC CULTURE FOUNDATION — For us to understand what ultimately made Albert Wohlstetter the man he became, we must first start with the story of Bertrand Russell. And for this, we must begin with the Fabian Society.

The Fabian Society was founded on January 4th, 1884 in London as an offshoot of The Fellowship of the New Life, which in turn was founded just one year earlier by Scottish philosopher Thomas Davidson. The Fellowship advocated pacifism, vegetarianism and simple living, under the influence of Leo Tolstoy’s ideas. (1) Some of its members also wanted to become politically involved in transforming society which led to the formation of the Fabian Society.

One of the nine founding members of the Fabian Society was Frank Podmore, who was also an influential member of the Society for Psychical Research.

Alfred Russell Wallace, William Crookes, F.W.H. Myers and renown psychologist William James’ work on mediums, telepathy and materializations led to the founding of the Society of Psychical Research, the Theosophical Society and their American branches.

Alfred Russell Wallace was a close associate of T.H. Huxley (Darwin’s bulldog) and co-founded the theory of natural selection alongside Charles Darwin.

The Fabian Society was extremely influenced by the ideas of Darwinism. Much of what they supported in terms of ideologies and philosophies was for the purpose of advancing Darwinism and saw Karl Marx’s newly published system as the perfect vehicle to carry Darwin’s logic into a controlling ideology to organize the masses.

Karl Marx himself was very much drawn to the ideas of Darwin, including two explicit references to Darwin and evolution in the second edition of Das Kapital. (2) […]

1 Comment on A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: The Fabian Society

  1. JEWRY IS THE MOTHER OF MARXISM
    “Anti-Communism is anti-Semitism.”
    ~ Jewish Voice, July ~ August 1941.

    COMMUNISM AND CENTRAL BANKING

    This may seem strange. What can there be in common between Communism and the largest banks? Ho-ho! The Communism of Marx seeks an enormous centralization of the state, and where such exists, there must inevitably be a central state bank, and where such a bank exists, the parasitic Jewish nation, which profiteers from the labour of others, will always find a way to prevail. In reality, for the proletariat, this would be a barrack regime, under which the working men and the working women, converted into a uniform mass, would rise, fall asleep, work, and live at the beat of the drum.” ~ Bakunin (1814-1876)

    Marxism, to which all branches of Socialism necessarily adhere, was originated by Jew Karl Marx, himself of rabbinical descent and has been dominated by them from the beginning. Marx did not actually originate anything; he merely “streamlined” Talmudism for Gentile consumption.

    This list suggests there was nothing ‘Russian’ about the ‘Russian Revolution’, yet this fact is mostly obscured by contemporary historians.
    1. “Some call it Marxism, I call it Judaism.” – Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, in the American Bulletin of May 15, 1935.
    2. “The revolution in Russia is a Jewish revolution” – The Maccabean (New York), Nov. 1905, p, 250.
    3. “Jewry is the mother of Marxism.” – Le Droit de Vivre, May 12, 1936.“Judaism is Marxism, communism” – Harry Waton, A Program for the Jews and an Answer to All Anti-Semites (New York: Committee for the Preservation of the Jews, 1939), p. 64.
    4. “The communist soul is the soul of Judaism.” – Harry Waton, A Program for the Jews and an Answer to All Anti-Semites (New York: Committee for the Preservation of the Jews, 1939), p. 143.
    5. “We Jews cannot be called upon to denounce Communism.” -The American Hebrew (New York), February 3, 1939, p. 11“The picture which the Soviet Union presents today is one that should bring rejoicing to world Jewry.” – The Youngstown Jewish Times, Sept. 18, 1936, page 51.
    6. “It would be absurd to deny the intensity of the Jewish participation in the Russian revolutionary movement.” – Leon Dennen, in The Menorah Journal (New York) July-September 1932, p. 106.
    7. “That achievement – the Russian-Jewish revolution – destined to figure in history as the overshadowing result of World War, was largely the outcome of Jewish thinking, of Jewish discontent, of Jewish effort to reconstruct.” – The American Hebrew, September 10, 1920.
    8. “The Bolshevik Government of Russia is the key-stone of the arch of the proof of the Jewish conspiracy for radicalism and world-domination.” – William Hard, The Great Jewish Conspiracy (New York: American Jewish Book Company, 1920), p. 31.
    9. “The Jewish elements provide the driving forces for communism” – Dr. Oscar Levy, in George Pitt-Rivers, The World Significance of the Russian Revolution (Oxford, 1920), p. ix.
    10. “The Jews have been furnishing for the Bolsheviks the majority of their leaders” – The Jewish World (London), April 16, 1919, p. 11.
    11. “Russian Jews have taken a prominent part in the Bolshevist movement” – The American Hebrew (New York), November 18, 1927, p. 20.
    12. “Jewry has come to wield a considerable power in the Communist Party.” – Dr. Avrahm Yarmolinsky, in The Menorah Journal (New York), July 1928, p. 37.
    13. “The East-Side Jew [Trotsky] that Conquered Europe” – The Liberator (New York), March 1920, pp. 26-27.
    14. “The real East Sider [New York Jew Trotsky] is at the head of things in Russia.” – M. L. Larkin, in The Public (New York), November 23, 1918, p. 1433.
    15. “It is not an accident that Judaism gave birth to Marxism, and it is not an accident that the Jews readily took up Marxism; all this is in perfect accord with the progress of Judaism and the Jews.” – Harry Waton, A Program for the Jews and an Answer to All Anti-Semites (New York: Committee for the Preservation of the Jews, 1939), p. 148
    16. “Karl Marx, who came from an old family of rabbis and brilliant Talmudic scholars, was to point the path of victory for the proletariat.” – L. Rennap, Anti-Semitism and the Jewish Question (London, 1942), p. 31.
    17. “Among his [Karl Marx’s] ancestors were Rabbis and Talmudists, men of learning and keen intellect.” – Henry Wickham Steed, in The American Hebrew (New York), December 9, 1927, p. 206 “The peculiarly Jewish logic of his [Karl Marx’s] mind” – Henry Wickham Steed, in The American Hebrew (New York), December 9, 1927, p. 206.
    18. “Mr. Wickham Steed lays the rise of Bolshevism at the doors of Jewry.” – The Jewish Guardian (London), November 28, 1924, p. 4.“The Bolshevik Revolution has emancipated the Jews as individuals” – Dr. Avrahm Yarmolinsky, in The Menorah Journal (New York), July 1928, p. 33.
    19. “There are many Bolshevik leaders of Jewish extraction” – D. L. Sandelsan, in The Jewish Chronicle (London), February 20, 1920, p. 22.
    20. “There is no Jew who does not hope with all his heart that the Soviet Union will survive and be victorious” – Zionist Review (London: Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland), September 26, 1941, p. 7.
    21. “Communism and internationalism are in truth and in fact great virtues. Judaism may be justly proud of these virtues” – Harry Watan, A Program for the Jews and an Answer to All Anti-Semites (New York: Committee for the Preservation of the Jews, 1939), p. 80.
    22. “If the tide of history does not turn toward Communist internationalism … then the Jewish race is doomed.” – George Marlen, Stalin, Trotsky, or Lenin (New York, 1937), p. 414 “The [Jewish] Commissaries were formerly political exiles. They had been dreaming of revolution for years in their exile in Paris, in London, in New York, in Berlin, everywhere and anywhere. They saw in the Bolshevist Movement an opportunity of realizing the extreme ideas of Communism and internationalism to which their fate had compelled them.” – Dr. D. S. Pazmanik, in The Jewish Chronicle (London), September 5, 1919, p. 14.
    23. “The Jewish people will never forget that the Soviet Union was the first country – and as yet the only country in the world – in which anti-Semitism is a crime.” – Jewish Voice (New York: National Council of Jewish Communists), January 1942, p. 16.
    24. “Anti-Semitism was classed [by the Soviet Government] as counter-revolution and the severe punishments meted out for acts of anti-Semitism were the means by which the existing order protected its own safety” – The Congress Bulletin, (New York: American Jewish Congress), January 5, 1940, p. 2.
    25. “There is no official anti-Semitism in Russia; anti-Semitism in Russia is a crime against the State.” – Dr. Chalm Weizmann, The Jewish People and Palestine (London: Zionist Organization, 1939), p. 7.
    26. “Anti-Communism is anti-Semitism.” – Jewish Voice (New York: National Council of Jewish Communists), July-August 1941, p. 23.“The part which Jews play in the [Communist] Government of the country [Russia] does not appear to be declining” – Harry Sacher, in The Jewish Review (London), June-August 1932, p. 43.
    27. “The Jews have a right to subordinate to themselves the rest of mankind and to be the masters over the whole earth. This is the historic destiny of the Jews” – Harry Waton, A Program for the Jews and an Answer to All Anti-Semites (New York Committee for the Preservation of the Jews, 1939), pp. 99-100.
    28. “We Jews, we the destroyers, will remain the destroyers forever. Nothing that you will do, will meet our needs and demands. We will destroy because we need a world of our own.” – Maurice Samuel, You Gentiles, page 155.
    29. “The Russian intelligentsia . . . saw in the philosophy of Judaism the germs of Bolshevism – the struggle of … Judaism versus Christianity.” – Leon Dennen, in The Menorah Journal (New York, July-September 1932, p. 105.
    30. “Soviet Russia has declared war on Christianity, and on those who profess this faith. In the Russian villages today Bolsheviks and Herbert H. Lehman . . . were called the ‘secret government of the United States’ and were linked with ‘world communism.’” – Dr. Louis Harap, in Jewish Life (New York), June 1951, p. 20.

    “Anti-Communism is anti-Semitism.”
    Jewish Voice (New York: National Council of Jewish Communists), July-August 1941, p. 23

    STALIN AND ANTISEMITISM

    J. Stalin
    January 12, 1931

    Reply to an Inquiry of the Jewish News Agency in the United States

    In answer to your inquiry:

    National and racial chauvinism is a vestige of the misanthropic customs characteristic of the period of cannibalism. Anti-Semitism, as an extreme form of racial chauvinism, is the most dangerous vestige of cannibalism.

    Anti-Semitism is of advantage to the exploiters as a lightning conductor that deflects the blows aimed by the working people at capitalism. Anti-Semitism is dangerous for the working people as being a false path that leads them off the right road and lands them in the jungle. Hence Communists, as consistent internationalists, cannot but be irreconcilable, sworn enemies of anti-Semitism.

    In the U.S.S.R. anti-Semitism is punishable with the utmost severity of the law as a phenomenon deeply hostile to the Soviet system. Under U.S.S.R. law active anti-Semites are liable to the death penalty. [*]

    J. Stalin
    January 12, 1931

    First published in the newspaper Pravda, No. 329, November 30, 1936

    SOURCE:
    https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1931/01/12.htm

    STALIN’S JEWS
    We mustn’t forget that some of greatest murderers of modern times were Jewish
    Sever Plocker|Published: 12.21.06 , 23:35
    Here’s a particularly forlorn historical date: Almost 90 years ago, between the 19th and 20th of December 1917, in the midst of the Bolshevik revolution and civil war, Lenin signed a decree calling for the establishment of The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage, also known as Cheka.

    Within a short period of time, Cheka became the largest and cruelest state security organization. Its organizational structure was changed every few years, as were its names: From Cheka to GPU, later to NKVD, and later to KGB.

    We cannot know with certainty the number of deaths Cheka was responsible for in its various manifestations, but the number is surely at least 20 million, including victims of the forced collectivization, the hunger, large purges, expulsions, banishments, executions, and mass death at Gulags.

    Whole population strata were eliminated: Independent farmers, ethnic minorities, members of the bourgeoisie, senior officers, intellectuals, artists, labor movement activists, “opposition members” who were defined completely randomly, and countless members of the Communist party itself.

    In his new, highly praised book “The War of the World, “Historian Niall Ferguson writes that no revolution in the history of mankind devoured its children with the same unrestrained appetite as did the Soviet revolution. In his book on the Stalinist purges, Tel Aviv University’s Dr. Igal Halfin writes that Stalinist violence was unique in that it was directed internally.

    Lenin, Stalin, and their successors could not have carried out their deeds without wide-scale cooperation of disciplined “terror officials,” cruel interrogators, snitches, executioners, guards, judges, perverts, and many bleeding hearts who were members of the progressive Western Left and were deceived by the Soviet regime of horror and even provided it with a kosher certificate.

    All these things are well-known to some extent or another, even though the former Soviet Union’s archives have not yet been fully opened
    to the public. But who knows about this? Within Russia itself, very few people have been brought to justice for their crimes in the NKVD’s and KGB’s service. The Russian public discourse today completely ignores the question of “How could it have happened to us?” As opposed to Eastern European nations, the Russians did not settle the score with their Stalinist past.

    And us, the Jews? An Israeli student finishes high school without ever hearing the name “Genrikh Yagoda,” the greatest Jewish murderer of the 20th Century, the GPU’s deputy commander and the founder and commander of the NKVD. Yagoda diligently implemented Stalin’s collectivization orders and is responsible for the deaths of at least 10 million people. His Jewish deputies established and managed the Gulag system. After Stalin no longer viewed him favorably, Yagoda was demoted and executed, and was replaced as chief hangman in 1936 by Yezhov, the “bloodthirsty dwarf.”

    Yezhov was not Jewish but was blessed with an active Jewish wife. In his Book “Stalin: Court of the Red Star”, Jewish historian Sebag Montefiore writes that during the darkest period of terror, when the Communist killing machine worked in full force, Stalin was surrounded by beautiful, young Jewish women.

    Stalin’s close associates and loyalists included member of the Central Committee and Politburo Lazar Kaganovich. Montefiore characterizes him as the “first Stalinist” and adds that those starving to death in Ukraine, an unparalleled tragedy in the history of human kind aside from the Nazi horrors and Mao’s terror in China, did not move Kaganovich.

    Many Jews sold their soul to the devil of the Communist revolution and have blood on their hands for eternity. We’ll mention just one more: Leonid Reichman, head of the NKVD’s special department and the organization’s chief interrogator, who was a particularly cruel sadist.

    In 1934, according to published statistics, 38.5 percent of those holding the most senior posts in the Soviet security apparatuses were of Jewish origin. They too, of course, were gradually eliminated in the next purges. In a fascinating lecture at a Tel Aviv University convention this week, Dr. Halfin described the waves of soviet terror as a “carnival of mass murder,” “fantasy of purges”, and “essianism of evil.” Turns out that Jews too, when they become captivated by messianic ideology, can become great murderers, among the greatest known by modern history.

    The Jews active in official communist terror apparatuses (In the Soviet Union and abroad) and who at times led them, did not do this, obviously, as Jews, but rather, as Stalinists, communists, and “Soviet people.” Therefore, we find it easy to ignore their origin and “play dumb”: What do we have to do with them? But let’s not forget them. My own view is different. I find it unacceptable that a person will be considered a member of the Jewish people when he does great things, but not considered part of our people when he does amazingly despicable things.

    Even if we deny it, we cannot escape the Jewishness of “our hangmen,” who served the Red Terror with loyalty and dedication from its establishment. After all, others will always remind us of their origin.

    LIST OF JEWS IN SOVIET RUSSIA
    The Bolsheviks Of Russia

    Most of the top Bolshevik officials in communist Russia from 1917-onward were Jewish by race/ethnicity. The few non-Jewish officials in the list below are specifically noted as being not Jewish. [Note on name spellings: Russian names are spelled differently depending upon the source, e.g., Yoffe is also spelled Ioffe and sometimes Joffe; Grigory is sometimes Grigori or even Grigorii].

    It should be noted that most of the Bolshevik leaders who were not Jewish nonetheless had Jewish wives, e.g. Bukharin, Rykov, Molotov, Voroshilov, Kirov, Dzherzhinsky, Lunacharsky, so there children were Jewish. As such, the Jewish taproot that ran through Soviet government from 1917-onward is larger than many people realize. Also, the term ‘Bolshevik’ is used rather loosely here.

    1.Vladimir I. Lenin [1870-1924]: first Premier of the USSR; Marxist theoretician; a lawyer; founder of the Bolsheviks [1903]; supreme dictator of early Bolshevik regime; founder of the Comintern; author of the Marxist handbook “State and Revolution”; Lenin was one-quarter Jewish, and is rumored to have been married to a crypto-Jew, however, evidence of that seems lacking.

    Monday, Jun. 13, 2011
    Vladimir Lenin Was Part Jewish, Say Declassified KGB Files
    By Emmanuel Grynszpan
    (MOSCOW) — A recently opened exhibition in Moscow’s State Historical Museum is shedding some light on a long-guarded Russian secret: the origins of Soviet founding father Vladimir Lenin. Lenin’s maternal grandfather, the exhibition revealed, was born Jewish.

    This fascinating morsel of information, gleaned from declassified KGB files, is not a minor detail in a country where anti-Semitism was a recognized state doctrine for decades. Starting in the 1930s, the Soviet regime —spurred on by its leader Joseph Stalin — launched a violent discriminatory campaign against Jewish citizens.

    Born in 1870, Lenin identified himself simply as Russian. His official biography mentions only his Russian, German and Swedish origins. But one of the exhibition’s priceless pieces adds a key new element to the official narrative.

    In a letter to Stalin in 1932 — six years after Lenin’s death — Anna Ulyanova, Lenin’s older sister, wrote that their maternal grandfather “came from a poor Jewish family and was, according to his baptismal certificate, the son of Moses Blank.” Blank was born in Zhitomir, Ukraine.

    In her letter, Ulyanova said her brother “had always thought highly of Jews.” She also urged Stalin to reveal Lenin’s Jewish background, concluding that “it would be wrong to hide it from the masses.”

    Stalin, however, ordered Ulyanova to keep Lenin’s Jewish roots under wraps. A few years later, Stalin began to purge Jews from among the leaders of the revolution. Prior to his death in 1953, furthermore, he was preparing to send the whole Jewish population living in the Soviet Union to concentration camps in Siberia.
    Most provincial Russian towns have a main road named Lenin Street. You can usually find shops selling luxury goods and banking centers there. They tend to contain all the flashiest symbols of the country’s now capitalist society.

    In the middle of virtually every central square, including in Belarus and in Ukraine, there is a high-rise statue of Lenin looking down on the rowdy shopkeepers. The Lenin paradox even goes further. Lenin is revered by Russia’s radical fringe — people who feel nostalgic for the Soviet regime in general and for anti-Semitic Stalinism in particular.

    The cult of Lenin has its physical focal point in Moscow’s Red Square, where Lenin’s mummified body is on permanent display in a mausoleum. In the past, Soviet citizens were expected to carry out pilgrimages to the Communist leader’s resting place.

    Lenin’s legacy is the subject of debate. Some Russian Communists want Lenin’s cult to endure forever. But there are Russian Orthodox Christians who loathe Lenin because he destroyed Tsarism and because he turned atheism into a cornerstone of the official ideology. The latter, like many ordinary Russian people, want the man to be buried — with or without the honors reserved for a statesman.

    Russians who began their working lives after the fall of the communist system often see things in the same ambivalent way. “Soviet children almost regarded Grandfather Lenin as Santa Claus,” says Daria Beliaeva, a 30-year-old financial analyst who looks back at the Soviet era with nostalgia. “But later, I heard that the Germans sent him to Russia in an armored train to trigger the Russian revolution. I also heard that he ordered the destruction of about 100 churches,” the practicing Orthodox adds disapprovingly.

    Daria wasn’t particularly moved one way or the other when she heard the Soviet idol had Jewish roots. “He had elements of good and evil in him. He put his mark on Russian history. Now, he needs to be buried.”

    Political expert Boris Kagarlitski, a former dissident and proud Leninist, says:

    “the Russian authorities are using the debate about Lenin’s Jewish background and about his burial as a pretext for taking people’s minds off the real problems and issues facing our society.”

    Even if latent anti-Semitism does not play an active role in contemporary Russian politics, the Lenin exhibition could end up cutting into the famed revolutionary’s enduring popularity. It might also persuade authorities to once and for all put his embalmed body to rest.

    Joseph Stalin [1879-1953]: an early Bolshevik; supreme dictator of Soviet Union from 1927-1953. After V. Lenin’s death, and prior to 1927, the Bolshevik regime was run by a triumvirate composed of Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Stalin. Stalin was the editor of the Bolshevik newspaper, Pravda [“Truth”]. Stalin was married to a Jewess, i.e. his third marriage, which apparently wasn’t officially formalized. Stalin was not a vigorous supporter of forcing Communism upon other countries — unlike Trotsky — a feature which likely prevented a Soviet assault upon various Western countries. [Not Jewish].
    Leon Trotsky [t/n Bronstein] [1879-1940]: Trotsky was a Menshevik; was Commissar of Foreign Affairs; supreme commander of the Soviet Red Army; member of Politburo; he rebelled against Stalin and his supporters and was murdered by Stalin for that reason. Trotsky strongly advocated the idea of global — not simply local — Marxist revolution.
    Lazar M. Kaganovich [1893-1991]: a prime director of mass-murder for Stalin; held a series of vocations, including commissar of transport, heavy industry and the fuel industry; a Politburo member; he was Stalin’s brother-in-law and also his chief advisor; many execution orders bore Kaganovich’s signature [1], evidence that he had the power to order the deaths of civilians [2]. During the 1930s, he was in charge of the deportations of “enemies of the state” to Siberia; was nicknamed the “Wolf of the Kremlin” because of his penchant for violence. He was considered by many to be the most powerful and important man under Stalin. Died of old age in Moscow.
    Grigory Zinoviev [aka Apfelbaum; aka Radomyslsky] [1883-1936]: great pal of Lenin; member of the Central Committee; chairman of the Comintern; member of Politburo; executive of secret police; first president of the Third International; A. Lunacharsky called him “one of the principal counsellors of our Central Committee and [he] belongs unquestionably to the four or five men who constitute the political brain of the Party.”
    Grigori Y. Sokolnikov [1888-1939]:a Bolshevik; friend of Trotsky; Commissar of Finance; a diplomat; member of the “Left Opposition”; Soviet ambassador to England; creator of the “chervonetz,” the first stable Soviet currency; was part of “Russian” delegation that signed the Brest-Litovsk treaty in 1918; member of the Central Committee and Politburo.
    Moisei Uritsky [1873-1918]: Uritsky was a Menshevik; chief of the Petrograd Cheka, in which capacity he ordered many people who opposed Communism to be executed as “counter-revolutionaries”; Commissar for Internal Affairs in the Northern Region; the commissar of the Constituent Assembly; member of the Central Committee; a member of the “Revolutionary Military Center.”
    Felix Dzherzhinsky [1877-1926]: a Pole; a high-strung fanatic; founder/director of the Cheka [All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage], which was later renamed the State Political Directorate [GPU], which later became the OGPU and then the NKVD [Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs]; member, Central Committee; Commissar of Transport. [Not Jewish but philosemitic and married to a Jew].
    Maxim Litvinov [aka Wallakh] [1876-1951]: Soviet foreign minister/diplomat/ambassador; in 1933, he persuaded the United States to recognize the Communist Soviet government as “legit” — thanks, in part, to America’s president F. D. Roosevelt being part-Jewish; first chairman, State Committee on the Anthem [official musical anthems].
    Lavrenti Beria [1899-1953]: member of the Cheka; later became head of the Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs [NKVD] in Georgia, then later the NKVD proper. Beria had large numbers of prisoners executed [3]; was involved in the Atomic Bomb project in the USSR; [Beria was roughly 1/4 Jewish from his mother’s ancestry].
    Yakov [Jacob] Sverdlov [aka Solomon] [1885-1919]: member, “Revolutionary Military Center”; member, Central Committee; close buddy of Lenin; aided Lenin with Lenin’s political theories; Sverdlov ordered the massacre of the Czar’s family in 1918. Sverdlov succeeded Kamenev and became the second Jewish president of the so-called “Soviet Republic.”
    Sergei M. Kirov [1886-1934]; early Bolshevik; member of the Politburo; Secretary of the Central Committee; Communist Party boss in Leningrad. Stalin used Kirov’s murder in 1934 to justify the party purges and treason trials of the late 1930s. [Apparently not Jewish but married to a Jew].
    Nikolai V. Krylenko [1885-1938]: an early Bolshevik; member of editorial board of Pravda; member of the executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet; famous chess player; member of the Communist Party Central Committee; a military commissar; as President of the Supreme Tribunal he prosecuted most political trials in the 1920s; in 1931, Stalin appointed Krylenko Commissar of Justice; he was involved in the convictions of many Communist Party members during the Great Purges. [Not Jewish].
    Karl Radek [aka Sobelsohn] [1885-1939]; early revolutionary; old confidante of Lenin; member of the Central Committee; an “international” Communist activist; a key player in the creation of the Comintern; a writer for the Soviet government newspaper Izvestia; participated in the Brest-Litovsk peace negotiations with Germany; he also was active in Germany, working with Jewish-German Communist Rosa Luxemburg.
    Viacheslav I. Molotov [1890-1986]: early Bolshevik; helped found Pravda newspaper; head of the Ukrainian Communist Party; member of the Politburo; Commissar for Foreign Affairs; headed a Politburo commission to “eliminate the kulaks as a class.” [Apparently not Jewish but philosemitic; his wife was Jewish, named Zhemchuzina].
    Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko [1884-1939]: a former Menshevik; Chief of Political Administration of the Red Army; an unofficial ambassador to Czechoslovakia and Poland; Commissar for Military Affairs in Petrograd; Commissar of War; led the Red Army invasion of the Ukraine; led the attack on the Winter Palace; editor of the Menshevik “Nashe Slovo” newspaper.
    Yakov [Jacob] Yurovsky [y/b/d unknown]: head of Ekaterinburg Cheka; “Commissar of Justice” for Ural Regional Soviet; the leader of the Bolshevik squad that carried out the murders of Czar Nicholas II and his family in 1918. The murder of mild-mannered Nicholas was carried out almost completely by Jews, including Goloshchekin, Syromolotov, Safarov, Voikov, in addition to Yurovsky.
    Grigory Sergo Ordzhonikidze [1886-1937]; member of the Politburo; Commissar for Heavy Industry; helped solidify Bolshevik power in Armenia and Georgia; Chairman of the Caucasus Central Committee of the Communist Party; First Secretary of the Transcaucasian Communist Party Committee; Chairman of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party; became Stalin’s top economic official. [Apparently not Jewish].
    Genrikh [Henry] Yagoda [1891-1938]; a Polish Jew; former Cheka member; an officer in SMERSH, the Ninth Division of the OGPU, its liquidation arm; People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs; chief of the NKVD; also in charge of gulag forced-labor camps. Developing fast-acting poisons was a Yagoda hobby; he created a laboratory for that purpose.
    Lev Kamenev [aka Rosenfeld] [1883-1936]; member of the Central Committee; Chairman of the Moscow Soviet; member of Politburo; author of Marxist handbook “The Dictatorship of the Proletariat,” 1920; was elected first President of new Bolshevik government, aka “Soviet Republic” [Lenin was Premier]; was married to Trotsky’s sister.
    Anatoly V. Lunacharsky [1875-1933]; an early Marxist; Commissar for Education and Enlightenment; League of Nations ambassador; key player in persuading Russian workers to support the Bolshevik Revolution; was an author – wrote the “Revolutionary Silhouettes” of top Bolshevik pals; [Apparently not Jewish but married to a Jew].
    Fedor [Theodore] Dan [1871-1947]: was a Menshevik; was a member of the editorial board of the Menshevik journal “Iskra”; was author of the book “The Origins of Bolshevism” [1943], where he claimed that Bolshevism had been chosen by history to be “the carrier of socialism”; but he was actually an opponent of most Bolshevik ideas; he was sent into exile in 1921 after being arrested; he was married to Menshevik leader Julius Martov’s sister.
    Nikolai Bukharin [1888-1938]: Lenin’s chief Marxist theorist; general secretary/chairman of the Comintern; member of the Politburo; member, Central Committee; he was editor of Pravda and also Izvestia, a political newspaper; led, with Rykov, the “Right Opposition” to defend the NEP [New Economic Policy]; [Apparently not Jewish yet married to a Jew].
    Nikolai Yezhov [1895-1939]: early Bolshevik; served in various capacities in the Cheka, GPU, and OGPU; was military commissar in various Red Army units; was G. Yagoda’s deputy; People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs; head of NKVD; was deputy People’s Commissar of Agriculture for the USSR.
    Mikhail I. Kalinin [1875-1946]; early Bolshevik; cofounder of the newspaper Pravda; nominal, “puppet” president of Soviet Union until 1946; replaced Sverdlov as Chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Communist Party; Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR.
    Isaac Steinberg [y/b/d unknown]; Commissar of Justice. Later brought Jewish-flavored radicalism to Australia.
    Alexei Rykov [1881-1938]; Premier of Soviet Union until 1930; member of Lenin’s Politburo; Commissar of the Interior; Chairman of the Supreme Council of National Economy; Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars; led the “Right Opposition” with Bukharin to defend the NEP [New Economic Policy]. [not Jewish, but married to a Jew].
    Matvei D. Berman [y/b/d unknown]: chief of gulag system and Deputy Commissar of the NKVD; brother of Boris.
    Naftaly Frenkel [y/b/d unknown]: a director of the gulag prison camp system; Turkish-born; was works chief/chief overseer of the one-hundred-and-forty-mile-long Belomor [White Sea-Baltic] canal project in Russia, a canal linking the White Sea and the Baltic, built from 1931–34; it was created entirely with slave labor; 60,000 workers died building the canal, the project having a mortality rate of roughly 10%.
    Adolph Yoffe [aka Ioffe] [1883-1927]: Commissar of Foreign Affairs; ex-Menshevik; close friend of Trotsky’s; helped publish the Pravda newspaper; delegate at the Brest-Litovsk peace negotiations; member of the State General Planning Commission; was later Soviet ambassador to China, Japan and Austria.
    Lev Inzhir [y/b/d/ unknown]: chief accountant for the gulag prison system.
    Boris Berman [ -1938]: served as the Byelorussian NKVD’s Commissar until 1938; brother of Matvei.
    K. V. Pauker [y/b/d unknown]: head of the Operations Department of the NKVD.
    Aleksandr Orlov [aka L. Feldbin] [1898-1970]: member of the Cheka; advisor to Spanish Communists in Spain; commander, Soviet Red Army; later worked at the Law School of the University of Michigan in America [!].
    Ilya Ehrenburg [1891-1967]: Soviet propaganda minister during WWII; delegate for Moscow in the Supreme Soviet; Communist writer; organizing member of JAC [Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee]; worked for Izvestia newspaper; performed research regarding Spain for the NKVD; author of book “The Ninth Wave,” and winner of two Stalin Prizes.
    Yemelyan Yaroslavsky [t/n M. I. Gubelman]; [birth/death dates unknown]; head of the Central Control Commission; apparently was in charge of stopping the Christian religion in Russia.
    Pavel [aka Paul] Axelrod [1850-1928]; co-founded Russia’s first socialist party with Georgii Plekhanov.
    A. B. Khalatov [ ]; Commissar of publishing, head of food allocations in the Soviet Union.
    Yona Yakir [ -1937]; Soviet military general; a commander in Kiev; purged by Stalin.
    A. A. Slutsky [ ]; boss of Boris Berman [see above].
    Semyon [aka S.G.] Firin [ ]; a commander at the White Sea-Baltic canal project.
    Jacob [aka Yakov] Rappoport [ ]; a Latvian Jew; deputy commander at the White Sea-Baltic canal project.
    V. Volodarsky [t/n M. M. Goldstein] [1891-1918] ; a Bolshevik; press commissar in Petrograd; Ukranian; lived in America for some time; assassinated.
    G. D. Sachs [1882- ]; a Bolshevik; a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee which directed the Bolshevik takeover of Russia.
    Dziga Vertov [t/n Denis or Dennis Kaufman] [1896- ]; involved in Soviet propaganda programs involving film/movies.
    Mikhail Koltsov [ ]; a top Communist journalist in Russia.
    Jaan Anvelt [1884 – 1937]; head of the Estonia government controlled by Moscow.
    Martyn Latsis [ ]; top Cheka official; author of an early book about the Cheka.
    I. A. Teodorovich [ ]; Commissar of Provisions.
    Simon [aka Simeon] Dimanstein [ ]; Commissar of Nationalities; author.
    Jacob Fuerstenberg [aka “Ganetzsky”] [t/n Jakub Hanecki] [1879-1937]; Polish; a top aide to Lenin and a key player in Lenin’s rise to power.
    Alexander Israel Helphand [aka “Parvus”] [1867-1924]; helped Trotsky develop the theory of “permanent revolution.”
    David Riazanov [aka Goldenbach] [1870-1938]; responsible for Soviet government publication of Karl Marx’s literary works.
    Mikhail Milshtein [ ] a military officer; deputy director of Soviet military intelligence during WWII.
    Gregory Gershuni [1870-1908]; an early revolutionary in Russia; was involved in the assassinations of Russian political leaders.
    Polina S. Zhemchuzhina [1884 -1970]; wife of Molotov; Deputy Commissar of the Food Industry; Commissar of the Fish Industry.
    Nikolai N. Sukhanov [aka Nikolai Gimmer] [1882-1940]; an economist; a member of the Contact Committee; an author.
    I. P. Meshkovsky [aka I. P. Goldenberg] [ ]; a member of the Central Committee.
    David A. Dragunsky [1910-1992]; a Colonel-General in the Soviet army.
    Ivan D. Chernyakhovsky [1906-1945]; Soviet military general.

    [1] Kaganovich’s signature as appearing on execution orders/lists: the book “The Black Book of Communism,” Harvard University Press, USA, 1999, page 189, hardcover.
    [2] Beria instigating the mass executions of the Katyn massacre: book “The Black Book of Communism,” page 368-369, hardcover.
    [3] about Kaganovich’s crimes:

    Sources for the above document include, but are not limited to: the book “Red October,” by Robert V. Daniels, Scribners, 1967; the book “The Harvest of Sorrow,” by Robert Conquest, Oxford University Press, 1986; the book “The Black Book of Communism,” by Stephane Courtois et al, Harvard University Press, 1999; plus web searches and public library research.
    Lazar Kaganovich: The Chief of Stalin’s Willing Executioners. Implications for HOLODOMOR, The Great Terror, and Katyn Massacre

    This review is from: Iron Lazar: A Political Biography of Lazar Kaganovich (Anthem Series on Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies)

    This work presents a great deal of information not only on leading Communist personages, but also on the functioning of the Soviet Union. I focus on a few main themes:

    THE JEWISHNESS OF LAZAR KAGANOVICH
    Author Rees repeatedly refers to Kaganovich as a deracinated Jewish revolutionary (e. g, p. 215, 268, 275). However, a better term might be the NON-JEWISH JEW, in accordance with the Jewish Communist Isaac Deutscher. [See my review.] In any case, the young Lazar Kaganovich had attended a Jewish school (KHEDER)(p. 3). Well into adulthood, Lazar openly identified with his Jewishness. Thus, in 1916, at the age of 23, he worked in a factory under the name of Boris Kosherovich (Yiddish-kosher), indicative of pride in his Jewish background, according to Rees. (p. 8). In later years, Kaganovich strongly opposed Zionism and other forms of Jewish separatism, but, then again, so did various other assimilationist Jews.

    One common exculpation for Jews in Communism is their professed idealism, their professed identification with the disinherited, and their professed desire for a more just world. In the case of Kaganovich, at least, the motives were almost the exact opposite. Rees quips, “Kaganovich already in 1919 advanced a Machiavellian conception of how Bolshevik state power should be organized. He displayed a disregard for democracy.” (p. 275).

    Let us put Kaganovich in broader context. Leading Jewish Communists showed different degrees of extremism in their Communist radicalism. For instance, during the 1918-1921 civil war, Zinoviev called for the extermination of the bourgeoisie as a class. (p. 23). In addition, during this time, Kaganovich endorsed Trotsky’s controversial policy of shooting military commanders and commissars for breaches of discipline. (p. 27).
    Author Rees has some strong words about Kaganovich, portraying him a selfish opportunist, “Other examples of Kaganovich’s cowardice—his failure to defend his brother Mikhail, Mikoyan’s claim of his loss of nerve in 1941, his failure to resist the anti-Semitic course of Stalin in the later years—fit the stereotyped image of the ambitious but cowardly, self-serving Jew.” (p. 258).

    NO ERRAND-BOY TO STALIN:
    THE POWER AND SIGNIFICANCE OF LAZAR KAGANOVICH
    We sometimes hear the exculpation that Jewish Communists were not all that important in the scheme of things. [Much the same was claimed by Adolf Eichmann in his “cog in the machine” and “banality of evil” dissimulations.] Nothing could be further from the truth.

    Rees identifies Lazar Kaganovich as the most prominent Jew in Soviet public life (p. 246), and as a person who was indispensable to Stalin in the 1930’s. (p. 247). Rees also says that Kaganovich, “contributed more than any other individual to shaping the [Stalin] regime in its formative years.” (p. 271). Between 1930 and 1935, Kaganovich was—according to Rees—“a figure of enormous power” who, moreover, appeared to be a possible successor to Stalin. (p. 273).
    ——The following [except for the titles in CAPS, and explanatory comments in brackets] are direct quotes——

    KAGANOVICH RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UKRAINIAN FAMINE-GENOCIDE (HOLODOMOR)
    Kaganovich, as general secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party, was a forthright exponent of forcible grain seizure. He now defended a policy of exploiting the peasants, a policy which, when advocated by [fellow Jews] Zinoviev and Trotsky, had had denounced only in November 1926. (p. 83).
    He [Kaganovich] was the principal author of the Urals-Siberian method of grain procurement of 1929-30 that acted as a prelude to forcible collectivization. He facilitated the mass deportation of the kulaks and played a key role in expulsion of Kuban peasants in 1932. In the years of famine he was the most vocal supporter of Stalin’s draconian law of 7 August 1932… (p. 272).
    [Note that Kaganovich was at the height of his power as Stalin’s deputy, in 1930-1935. (p. 123). This covered the years of the HOLODOMOR].

    KAGANOVICH AND THE COMMUNIST WAR AGAINST THE KULAKS
    It was in the context of collectivization and dekulakization that Stalin (the Man of Steel) applied to him the appellation ‘Iron Lazar’. (p. 209).
    Kaganovich, in a lengthy report to the plenum [January 1933], castigated the kulaks, offering them as scapegoats for the catastrophic failure of official policy…Only by breaking kulak resistance had it been possible to consolidate the KOLKHOZY, he claimed, thus confounding the direst warnings of Rykov, Tomsky and Bukharin, who had wished to see a slackening of the class struggle. [pp. 111-112; See also p. 96, about Lenin, already by 1916 dissenting from Bukharin, and arguing against any soon-to-be withering-away of the state.]

    At the XVII Party Congress, in January-February 1934, Kaganovich described the “revolution from above” as “the greatest revolution which human history has known, a revolution which smashed the old economic structure and created a new KOLKHOZ system on the base of the socialist industrialization of the country.” (p. 115).

    SOVIET COMMUNISM GROWS EVER MORE ONEROUS—THANKS TO STALIN AND KAGANOVICH
    Under the pressure of the radicalization of policies after 1928-30, the Bolshevik party-state evolved through a series of cycles of repression, culminating in the Terror of 1937-8. But Stalin managed the terror and was prescient enough to check these processes when they jeopardized the regime’s survival. Kaganovich was Stalin’s willing accomplice. He played a key role in promoting the Stalin cult and in developing the Stalinist political system. (p. 227).

    KAGANOVICH AND THE GENOCIDE OF SOVIET POLES (1937-1938)
    [Lazar Kaganovich evidently had a long-term enmity towards Poles. Already by the mid-1920’s, he had thought that his rule over Ukraine could serve as a model for an eventual Polish Soviet Socialist Republic. (p. 72)].
    [During the Great Terror, NKVD Order No. 00447 led to the genocidal murder of over 100,000 Soviet Poles. Kaganovich, and other Politburo members, signed 38 decisions that expanded the number of victims. (p. 195). The “Polish Operation” was well-named. In addition to all this, Kaganovich was involved in moves to restrict the cultural rights of various non-Russian peoples. (p. 195).]

    In one of his final interviews, Kaganovich asserted that the arrests and executions of 1937-38 had been done according to Soviet law. He thus ignored his own role as a leading advocate of Soviet state lawlessness. (p. 267).

    KAGANOVICH AND HIS COMPLICITY IN PRECIPITATING THE KATYN MASSACRE (1940)
    Kaganovich’s role in the Great Terror and his role in authorizing the murder of the Polish officers are among the most heinous of his crimes. (p. 274).
    ——-End of direct quotes———

    STALIN AND THE JEWS (ZYDOKOMUNA): WHY STALIN DID NOT TRUST THEM
    When it comes to rivals for Lenin’s position, Kaganovich appears to always have been on Stalin’s side. Otherwise, Rees generalizes that, “Most of Stalin’s opponents in the 1920s were Jews, but for many years thereafter, he had promoted Jews into important positions.” (p. 268). In fact, Stalin’s chief rivals for the succession of Lenin were Trotsky [Jew], Zinoviev [Jew], and Kamenev [half-Jew]. (p. 59).

    At later times, Jews worked in collusion (Jewish ethnic solidarity?) against Stalin. In 1925, with Trotsky eliminated, Zinoviev and Kamenev challenged Stalin’s concentration of power. (p. 53). At the Central Committee plenum in July 1926, Kamenev, Zinoviev, and Trotsky spoke out against Stalin. (p. 56).

    Not surprisingly, Stalin feared people who could potentially become his enemies. For instance, in the mid-1930s, with the Jew Genrich Yagoda as head, the NKVD was a powerful agency not entirely under Stalin’s control. (p. 165). No wonder that Stalin felt more comfortable replacing him with Yezhov, a non-Jew. In 1935, Stalin even demoted Kaganovich out of the conviction that no deputy should get too powerful. (p. 224).
    https://www.amazon.com/gp/review/R7H5OLVHJ9SUI?ref_=glimp_1rv_cl

    THE JEWISH RUN CONCENTRATION CAMPS

    The Jewish murder machine
    THE world today is comparatively well informed about the fate of the compulsion workers in the Soviet Union. But little is known about the concentration camps where conditions are so gruesome as to be almost unbelievable. Many people find it difficult to realize that this state of affairs can exist in the twentieth century.

    This explains why the descriptions about compulsion labor in the Soviet Union are sometimes skeptically received. This presentation of investigations is, therefore, based exclusively on actual reports of the government-controlled Soviet press and official governmental records. The photographs are also taken from official Soviet sources thereby providing- a possibility for everyone to verify for himself the interpretations. We wish to point out that all illustrations in this brochure are true reproductions of originals as they appeared in the official Soviet publication: “Stalin White Sea Canal” or in Soviet newspapers. We could not afford to disturb the poor quality of these pictures by retouching them as they reflect true conditions existing in the U. S, S. R. It is not our aim to present a complete and exhaustive account of the actual number of prisoners, the numbers put to death, the distribution of concentration camps, etc., but rather to give a cross cut of the life of those condemned to this form of living death — true and without exaggeration as conditions really are.
    https://archive.org/stream/TheJewishRunConcentrationCampsInTheSovietUnion/The%20Jewish-Run%20Concentration%20Camps%20in%20the%20Soviet%20Union_djvu.txt

    Here we have the photographic evidence that the USSR was a Jewish murder machine. The faces of the killers – Berman, Firin, Yagoda, etc. are clearly shown. The only possible objection is that a Nazi German wrote the booklet. But since Jewish scholars themselves admit the same facts, there is no issue. Read the book, look at the faces – and then ask yourself why the Jew media conceal the facts. This is enlightening account of the most brutal penal system ever devised. Not only was the Gulag concentration system as inhumane as can be devised, but the scope and numbers of people worked to death and slaughtered for their Jewish masters is hard to comprehend. In the Soviet concentration camp system, there was no medical treatment even permitted, starvation was par for the course, people were treated lower than animals. The death toll wasn’t 300,000 or 6 million it was in the tens of millions. The book shows that Jewish run camps were the most brutal of all camps ever built.

    https://archive.org/details/SlaveLaborInSovietRussia

    THE GULAGS OF THE JEWISH REVOLUTIONARIES
    With staggering implications, Together For Two Hundred Years showed how Lenin, Trotsky and other Jewish conspirators had overthrown the Romanov dynasty in 1917 and set up their own Bolshevik totalitarian system. The result:

    The nightly assassination and roundup of thousands of innocent men, women, and children, most of whom were herded by black-hearted Big Brother secret police into thousands of monstrously evil Gulag concentration camps.

    66 million murdered by mostly Jewish Gulag overlords! That’s over ten times the number of Jews claimed to have been slain in Nazi concentration camps.

    Obviously, such a powerful—and truthful—book as Together For Two Hundred Years must be suppressed. And it has been. No English-speaking publisher, either in Britain or in the U.S.A. has dared to publish it. So far, Solzhenitsyn’s book has only been issued in the Russian language.
    “Crush This Insolent Wretch”

    Shamelessly, yet quietly and without a lot of fanfare, Jewish organizations have put out the word:

    “Crush this insolent wretch, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. Give his works, his voice no forum, kill him with neglect. If you must mention his name, say it with scorn and with taunts and ridicule. Punish him severely for attempting to reveal our secrets to the world. Let him be an example of what the Jewish Power can do to a man who stubbornly refuses to tow the Zionist party line.”

    https://redice.tv/news/the-greatest-mass-murderers-of-all-time-were-jews-says-jewish-columnist

    KATYN:
    MYSTERIOUS “DISCOVERIES” OF THE KATYN DOCUMENTS

    The circumstances surrounding the discovery of “Beria’s letter no. 794/B” and the rest of the Katyn documents are complicated, to say the least. To begin with, we have Mikhail Gorbachev’s memoirs, “Zhizn’ i reformy” (“Life and reforms”) from 1995, where he states, that he first saw “Beria’s letter” in December 1991, when he opened the “closed package no. 1”. Gorbachev says that the last part of the letter was:

    “crossed out, and on top of it there was a note written by Stalin’s blue pencil: “The Politburo decision”. With the signatures: “Agree – Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov …”.

    Gorbachev handed over this package containing “Beria’s letter no. 794/B” and other Katyn documents to Boris Yeltsin on December 24, 1991, after having read its contents aloud in the presence of Alexander Yakovlev. The second time these documents “turned up” again was in September 1992. But “Beria’s letter”, that was found in September 1992 had neither the text that was crossed-out by Stalin, nor the note “The Politburo decision” written with a blue pen, which Gorbachev had described. Name signatures there were also written in a different order:

    “Agree – Stalin, Voroshilov, Molotov …”.

    In addition, Beria’s name on page four was crossed out with a blue pencil, judging from the handwriting by Stalin himself, and instead they put Bashtakov’s name there, who was Deputy Chief of the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), under Beria.

    It is possible, that Gorbachev had mixed things up in his memoirs, but it can also be so, that he actually saw another “Beria’s letter”. In connection to this, doubts and suspicion arise regarding the authenticity of “Beria’s letter”, that was found in September 1992. These doubts are strengthened by the story, that is usually told about the discovery of those documents. It’s officially considered, that the “closed package no. 1”, which contained “Beria’s letter” and other documents from the Politburo of the CC AUCP(b), was found on September 24, 1992 in the Presidential Archive of the Russian Federation (formerly known as the Archive of the Central Committee) by a commission lead by the Chief of the Presidential Administration Yuri Petrov, Presidential Adviser Dmitry Volkogonov and Director of the Archives Andrey Korotkov.

    When the package was opened, the Commission members understood the importance of their discovery and immediately reported about it to the President of Russia. Yeltsin then:

    “gave an order, that Rudolf Pikhoya, in his role as the director of the Russian archives, would fly to Warsaw and hand over those sensational documents to President Walesa” (“Katynskij sindrom v sovetsko-pol’skikh otnosheniyakh”, Moscow, ROSSPEN, 2001, p. 397).

    On October 15, 2009, the member of the Russian State Duma Andrey Makarov appeared at the round table meeting:

    “Falsification of history and historical myths as a tool of modern politics” held at the Center for Social Conservative Politics, and told the true story about the discovery of the Katyn documents. These were indeed found in September 1992 during the ongoing trial against the CPSU (Communist Party of the Soviet Union), although not in any archives, but in Yeltsin’s personal safe. Makarov told that he (most likely together with Sergey Shakhray, Russia’s former Deputy Prime Minister) came to Yeltsin.

    “And we said: Boris Nikolayevich, the CPSU trial goes rather badly. He opened the safe, in order to clearly show how it all works, took out six folders from there and said: okay, take these ones. In his presence, we looked at what it was. He took two of the folders back and said: no, it’s still too early to talk about this today. Then, by chance, I saw the name, what it was about, which made my hair rise. And no one in the country knew anything about it yet. The problem was that one of the folders, laid before us, was about Katyn” (“Nashe Vremya”, Nr. 139, October 26-November 1, 2009).

    There is nothing strange about this story, that could raise any doubts whatsoever, except for the fact that Makarov saw a folder named “Katyn”. This could never happen, since neither the folder nor the “closed package” have any notes on them that would indicate that they contain documents about Katyn. In order to understand, that inside these there were documents about Katyn, they needed to open not only the folder, but also the “closed package” itself. It is obvious that Makarov was present when the “closed package no. 1” was opened in Yeltsin’s office. But is it really so important to know, who actually found this package and how this discovery was made?

    Everyone knows, that people start lying about different things when they want to conceal an inconvenient truth. In our case, the information about the fact, that the “closed package” was stored in Yeltsin’s safe for almost one year, makes it possible to ask an uncomfortable question. Why didn’t Yeltsin hand those documents over to the Polish President Lech Walesa on May 21, 1992, when he was on an official state visit in Moscow?

    There cannot be any doubts that Walesa did discuss the Katyn issue during his personal meeting with Boris Yeltsin. For the Poles, this problem has always been an issue of top priority in their relations with Russia. But, apparently, Yeltsin seems to have confined himself to general discussions and kept quiet about the Katyn documents, which were stored in his safe.
    But in September 1992 Yeltsin gave orders (“immediately” as they say) to send the Katyn documents to Warsaw. What prevented him from doing exactly the same thing already in May that year? Whether you want it or not, but you start to listen to the researchers, who claim, that these documents were still “under development” at the time and that they were not yet “properly” designed.

    The situation cleared somewhat on March 28, 2008, when the well-known Russian historian Yuri Zhukov said in a radio program on the radio station “Serebryannyj dozhd’”, that he in the early 1990s (in 1993 or 1994), in connection with the CPSU trial, requested access to materials from the Presidential Archive of the Russian Federation regarding the “criminal” activities of the Soviet Communist Party.

    They brought him a “thin folder”, which contained various documents. Among these Zhukov saw a photocopy of “Beria’s letter to Stalin” written on one page only and with a proposal to execute some 2.000 or 3.000 captured Polish officers, who had been found guilty of war crimes and other crimes too. The now famous “Beria’s letter”, typed on four pages, and which was found in 1992, contains a proposal to shoot 25.700 captured and arrested Poles.

    The following day, on March 29, 2008, Yuri Zhukov was also interviewed via telephone by the independent Katyn researcher Sergey Strygin. Zhukov told Strygin an interesting detail: Beria’s signature was present in the document, which he saw in the archives. In the “real” four-page “Beria’s letter” his signature is placed on the last page of the document.
    Explanations suggesting that Beria would have sent two successive letters to Stalin proposing to execute the Poles cannot be considered as serious. In the CPSU, and earlier in the AUCP(b), they stuck to an established practice. When it came to issues which were of highest importance to the country and which required a decision “at the highest level”, they always performed a preliminary oral check on the forthcoming decision.

    Therefore, the proposals and requests that were sent to the Kremlin were thoroughly worked through and formed the final version. In addition, the initiative to the decision-making regarding the execution of the Poles could only come from Stalin. It was he, who gave Beria the order to prepare the letter. Given that, talking about two different letters is absolutely out of the question.

    There is no doubt that Yuri Zhukov had held in his hands a copy of the genuine “Beria’s letter” no. 794/B addressed to Stalin, which was dated February 29, 1940. Zhukov’s testimony is confirmed by another source. In December 2007, when Vladislav Shved met Viktor Galkin (the former employee at the General Department of the Central Committee, who had worked with the “closed package no 1” regarding Katyn), Galkin told him, that he in April 1981, on behalf of Konstantin Chernenko (who at that point was the director of the public sector of the Central Committee) delivered “Beria’s letter” from the “closed package no. 1” to the then KGB chief Yuri Andropov. There is a note about this on the folder itself, which contained the “closed package no. 1”.

    Galkin argued, that “Beria’s letter” which he delivered to Andropov, was written on one page and that it was about the execution of about 2.000-3.000 Polish officers. He saw the letter in Chernenko’s study. After Chernenko had opened the “closed package no. 1”, he gave Galkin instructions to put the letter in an envelope and to seal it. Regarding the four-page “Beria’s letter” (available only as a scanned color copy) Galkin explained, that he had never seen such a document.

    At first Vladislav Shved considered Viktor Galkin’s testimony with certain skepticism, and assumed that he had confused this document with the transcript of the Politburo’s decision from March 5, 1940, which is also written on one page. Only later, after Yuri Zhukov had told his story, he understood that Galkin’s story from memory was correct. To say anything more definite about “Beria’s letter no. 794/B” is not possible at this moment, not until we get the opportunity to conduct an independent and objective expert study of it.

    To add even more to the many question marks and doubts surrounding the “closed package no. 1”, one should mention what Mikhail Gorbachev wrote in 1995 in his memoirs. There he tells about how he in April 1989, just before Wojciech Jaruzelski’s upcoming visit to the Soviet Union, reviewed the Katyn documents. Gorbachev says there were two Katyn folders (not just one!) and that they:

    “both contained documentation, which confirmed the version of the Commission led by the academian Nikolai Burdenko. There was a collection of various materials, and they all supported that version”(“Zhizn’ i reformy”, book 2, 1995, p. 346).

    There is also some real evidence that allow us to have serious thoughts about what the Katyn folder actually contained in December 1991. As already mentioned, Alexander Yakovlev was present during the handing over of the “closed package no. 1” from Gorbachev to Yeltsin on December 24, 1991. The package was found (according to one of the versions) by the Russian archive workers, who insisted that Gorbachev should be notified about it one day before his retirement from his post as the President of the Soviet Union. On several occasions afterwards (including in his book “Sumerki” (“Twilight”, Materik, Moscow, 2003), and also in a live sent talk show on Russian television called “Kak eto bylo”) Yakovlev claimed, that the Katyn folder also contained a so called “Serov’s letter”. But no such letter has ever been found, neither then nor later, why we may wonder about what kind of a document Yakovlev was relating to. Was he talking about “Beria’s letter”, but happened to say wrong, and did so time and time again?

    A clue to that mystery may lie in the recently published draft copies of “Beria’s letter”, presented by Viktor Ilyukhin on November 24, 2010. He received these drafts on May 25, 2010 from an anonymous person, who contacted him and confessed, that he had been involved in a forgery group, that was active during the first half of the 1990s, i.e. during the time when Yeltsin was the President of the Russian Federation. The last page of the draft letter contains a peculiar note:

    “20). Bashtakov was head of the NKVD secretariat! L.P. Beria would hardly have entrusted him such a task? Replace with Abakumov? K. .. ov? Serov? (check the dates)”.

    Here Serov is mentioned as a possible substitute to Bashtakov to lead the NKVD troika, which would sentence the Poles to death, but they still didn’t include his name in the “final document” and kept Bashtakov. With that in mind, Yakovlev’s repeated stories about “Serov’s letter” could actually be a Freudian slip of the tongue, i.e. that he unconsciously said too much.
    The current Russian government and President Dmitry Medvedev pretend as if nothing special has happened, and call all the critics that has come up, which overthrow their official version of the Katyn events, for the “attempts to whitewash Stalin and his associates”. Such attitude is not very constructive. It would have been much better to let a group of independent experts examine the “closed package no. 1” and once and for all put an end to all speculations about its authenticity. But as long as they hide these “originals” away from both the public and the scientific community, they continue to confirm the suspicions that the Katyn affair has been falsified. And probably this is the very thing that has happened.

    References
    Gorbachev, Mikhail, Zhizn’ i reformy (2 books), Novosti, Moscow, 1995
    http://gorby.ru/ru/gorbachev/memoirs/
    Ilyukhin, Viktor, O rezolyutsii Gosdumy RF “Pamyati zhertv Katynskoi tragedii” (published on November 24, 2010)
    (this article contains the five page draft copy of “Beria’s letter”)
    http://www.katyn.ru/index.php?go=News&in=view&id=205
    Interview with historian Yuri Zhukov on the radio station Serebryanyj dozhd’, 100,1 FM, March 28, 2008, 08:05 MSK/MSD
    http://www.moskva.fm/stations/FM_100.1/programs/однажды_на_дожде/2008-03-28_08:05
    Istorik Yuri Zhukov na r/s Serebryannyj dozhd’ (28 marta, 2008)(thread from the discussion forum on the website “The Truth About Katyn”)
    http://www.katyn.ru/forums/viewtopic.php?id=553
    Katyn documents from the “closed package no. 1” (published on April 28, 2010 on Rosarkhiv’s official website)
    http://rusarchives.ru/publication/katyn/spisok.shtml
    Makarov, Andrey, Ya videl nazvaniye papki: volosy dybom vstayut…, from Nashe Vremya, Nr. 139, October 26-November 1, 2009
    http://www.gazetanv.ru/archive/2009/139/6028/
    Shved, Vladislav, Katyn-2010. Novaya stranitsa ili…? (published on April 30, 2010)
    http://katyn.ru/index.php?go=Pages&in=view&id=947
    Shved, Vladislav, Vnov’ o Katyni ili 70-letiye katynskogo rasstrela, kak lozhka degtya k 65-letiyu Velikoj Pobedy (published on February 14, 2010)
    http://www.hrono.ru/statii/2010/shwed70.php
    Yakovlev, Alexander, Sumerki, OOO Izdatel’skaya firma Materik, Moscow, 2003
    http://www.lebed.com/2005/art4364.htm (excerpt from the book)
    Yazhborovskaya I.S., Yablokov A.Yu., Parsadanova V.S., Katynskij sindrom v sovetsko-pol’skikh otnosheniyakh, Moscow, ROSSPEN, 2001
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