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Hidden, Suppressed History of Red Terror in Post-WWI Europe

“To overcome our enemies we must have our own socialist militarism. We must carry along with us 90 million out of the 100 million of Soviet Russia’s population. As for the rest, we have nothing to say to them. They must be annihilated.” — Grigory Zinoviev (aka Hirsch Apfelbaum), 1918

With the latest series of events involving police yokelism and the false Hegelian race and political dialectic, we must remember that one of the agendas of the Crime Syndicate is to bring police under centralized, national control. They do this by making local law enforcement look like bumpkins, not up to the job. This would be akin to the Soviet Cheka running all police. This will be unmitigated hell.

For some curious reason, Hollywood and the media scarcely pays the slightest attention to the history of the Bolshevik Red Terror. You won’t get much of the story on History Channel either. One would never guess that 40 million ethnic Russians and Ukrainians were murdered by thugs and goons over two decades starting in 1918.

This is suppressed and hidden history, but it goes along way toward explaining the 1920s so-called Fascist or Nationalist counter-reaction and widespread “anti-semitism” throughout Europe. The destabilized populations of Europe post WWI were naturally terrified of Trotskyite (Leon Trotsky, aka Lev Davidovich Bronstein) red terrorists. Bolshevism, Red Terror and Judaism were conflated as the same thing in most Europeans’ minds of the post WW I era.

“Some call it Marxism – I call it Judaism.”– Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, in the American Bulletin of May 15, 1935

“The revolution in Russia is a Jewish revolution”– The Maccabean (New York), Nov. 1905, p, 250

“Jewry is the mother of Marxism.”– Le Droit de Vivre, May 12, 1936

“Judaism is Marxism, communism” – Harry Waton, A Program for the Jews and an Answer to All Anti-Semites (New York: Committee for the Preservation of the Jews, 1939), p. 64

“The communist soul is the soul of Judaism.” – Harry Waton, A Program for the Jews and an Answer to All Anti-Semites (New York: Committee for the Preservation of the Jews, 1939), p. 143

“We Jews cannot be called upon to denounce Communism.” – The American Hebrew (New York), February 3, 1939, p. 11

“It would be absurd to deny the intensity of the Jewish participation in the Russian revolutionary movement.” -Leon Dennen, in The Menorah Journal (New York) July-September 1932, p. 106

“That achievement – the Russian-Jewish revolution – destined to figure in history as the overshadowing result of World War, was largely the outcome of Jewish thinking, of Jewish discontent, of Jewish effort to reconstruct.” – The American Hebrew, September 10, 1920

“The Jewish elements provide the driving forces for communism” -Dr. Oscar Levy, in George Pitt-Rivers, The World Significance of the Russian Revolution (Oxford, 1920), p. ix

“The Jews [have been] furnishing for the Bolsheviks the majority of their leaders” -The Jewish World (London), April 16, 1919, p. 11

“Russian Jews have taken a prominent part in the Bolshevist movement” -The American Hebrew (New York), November 18, 1927, p. 20

“Jewry has come to wield a considerable power in the Communist Party.” -Dr. Avrahm Yarmolinsky, in The Menorah Journal (New York), July 1928, p. 37

“Among the unhappy populations of countries where Jews are persecuted on account of their race….Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxemburg (Germany ), and Emma Goldman (United States), this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence and impossible equality, has been steady growing….with the exception of Lenin, the majority of leading figures are Jews.” – Winston Churchill in Illustrated Sunday Herald, February 8, 1920

Here Vladimir Putin explains that 80-85% of Bolsheviks were Jewish.

Indeed, beyond the capture of Russia, these Jewish hostile elites either briefly seized control or held regional power in countries like Hungary and Germany from 1919 to 1920.


György Lukács: Practitioner of Red Vanguardism and Cultural Nihilism


Among Germany’s Communist Party, 78% of its members were Jewish in the 1920s. Between March and August 1919, Bolsheviks under Bela Kuhn (aka Moritz Cohen) managed to take over in Hungary and murdered tens of thousands people before Admiral Miklos Horthy (labelled a “fascist”) with the aid of Romania threw them off. More details about Red Terror can be scrutinized here.

Red Terror in Russia was largely carried out by the Cheka and its successor, the NKVD. The Cheka published it’s kill list in it’s own publication. In 1918-19 the toll was 1.7 million. According to official Soviet report from 1922, 1,695,904 were exterminated between January, 1921 and April, 1922. Many were charged with “anti-social thinking.” The Bolsheviks set up a whole cottage gaslighting industry around this accusation.

The requisition of food terror associated with the Bolshevik Cheka resulted in a major famine in 1921-1923.

The New York Slimes reporter Walter Duranty engaged in a massive cover up of these crimes.

Portrait of Evil: Walter Duranty, The New York Times Moscow Bureau Chief Who Deliberately Hid Soviet-Imposed Famine that Killed Millions in Ukraine

Who exactly were these executioners?

Israeli historian Louis Rapoport writes:

Immediately after the [Bolshevik] Revolution, many Jews were euphoric over their high representation in the new government. Lenin’s first Politburo was dominated by men of Jewish origins.

Under Lenin, Jews became involved in all aspects of the Revolution, including its dirtiest work. Despite the Communists’ vows to eradicate anti-Semitism, it spread rapidly after the Revolution — partly because of the prominence of so many Jews in the Soviet administration, as well as in the traumatic, inhuman Sovietization drives that followed.

Historian Salo Baron has noted that an immensely disproportionate number of Jews joined the new Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka. Many of those who fell afoul of the Cheka would be shot by Jewish investigators.

The collective leadership that emerged in Lenin’s dying days was headed by the Jew Zinoviev, a loquacious, mean-spirited, curly-haired Adonis whose vanity knew no bounds.

Jewish historian Leonard Schapiro wrote, “Anyone who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the Cheka stood a very good chance of finding himself confronted with, and possibly shot by, a Jewish investigator.”

W. Bruce Lincoln, an American professor of Russian history, writes that in Ukraine, “Jews made up nearly 80 percent of the rank-and-file Cheka agents.”

This bloody period wound down in 1937, when Stalin ordered, “Clean out the synagogue”, and then purged and executed numerous Jewish operatives. Of course, the 1937-1938 purges are well covered by historians but never within its context. However as WW II approached Jews made a major come back as a source of stiff resistance to the Axis attack. In 1941, when Germany moved into Ukraine and the Baltic States, those peoples conducted payback on the Jewish population without the Germans so much as lifting a finger:

An official Report of the Reich Security Main Office documented the Lvov massacre as follows: ‘During the first hours after the departure of the Bolshevik Army, the Ukrainian population took praiseworthy action against the Jews … About 7,000 Jews were seized and shot by the Ukrainian police in retribution for inhuman acts of cruelty [at Brygidki and the other prisons] …” (dated 16 July 1941

At right is an example of the Chekas’ “Red Terror” garb: brown leather coats or butcher aprons with leather boots, suitable for cleaning off and wiping up blood. These goons used knifes and revolvers on their victims. They also loved to torture and rape. The taking of hostages was common.

The last vision in life for millions was being confronted by a monster dressed in this lovely outfit. Not only were millions of ethnic Russians victimized, but the blame for these crimes was solely pinned on them.

An example of the graphic killing operation is shown below in a clip from the 1992 Russian film The Chekist.”

22 Comments on Hidden, Suppressed History of Red Terror in Post-WWI Europe

  1. É inegável que está neste momento em marcha um assalto sionista contra Portugal. É vê-los por aí, sionistas e seus lacaios infiltrados nos media, na política e até mesmo no sistema judicial, a levarem a cabo uma campanha que é não apenas fanaticamente pró-israelita, como é também vingativa e pretende fazer uso da história (mal contada…) de uma forma totalmente abusiva.

    Na comunicação social, soma e segue a quantidade cada vez maior de artigos e reportagens favoráveis ao Estado de Israel, que é de longe, não apenas um Estado genocida, como é também um dos maiores patrocinadores de terrorismo no Mundo. Nos últimos anos, disparou a propaganda a favor de Israel e do Sionismo em Portugal e já chegámos ao cúmulo de haver gente no nosso País que está a ser processada por alegado “negacionismo do Holocausto”. Resta saber, quando é que vai existir também a mesma preocupação em proibir e perseguir judicialmente quem nega os crimes do Comunismo? Ou quando é que se vão fazer filmes e séries da Netflix sobre os judeus que foram responsáveis pelo Terror Vermelho na Europa no pós- Primeira Guerra Mundial? É que sabem, já que tanto têm crucificado o povo alemão, devido ao seu papel na ascensão do Nazismo, que tal darem o mesmo tratamento aos judeus que foram responsáveis pela ascensão e difusão do Comunismo no Mundo?…

    Ora porra, só um cego é que não vê o que se está a passar! Até Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, o lendário escritor russo e Nobel da literatura (1970), foi perseguido por esta gente depois de publicar a obra intitulada Two Hundred Years Together. E qual o motivo da perseguição? O que é que incomodou tanto os judeus? Pois bem, é que Solzhenitsyn teve a coragem e a ousadia de denunciar o papel destacado que os judeus tiveram na orgia de terror comunista na Rússia. E Solzhenitsyn fez isto tudo com grande pormenor, expondo os nomes, os lugares e as datas precisas dos acontecimentos. Pior ainda e aqui é que Solzhenitsyn meteu mesmo “a pata na poça”, ele abordou a forma como os judeus têm uma magnifica capacidade de se fazerem passar por vítimas em situações em que, na realidade, eles é que são os principais instigadores do terror! Esta capacidade de manipular a percepção dos acontecimentos, segundo Solzhenitsyn, dependia por sua vez da capacidade dos judeus controlarem os media e em consequência, a narrativa dominante.

    Voltando agora a Portugal, o nosso País, apesar dos seus muitos defeitos, é um dos poucos países da Europa Ocidental em que ainda não existe um grande lobby pró-Israel como o CRIF em França. O assalto sionista contra Portugal visa mudar precisamente isto, visa não apenas lançar a base para a criação de um grande lobby pró-sionista com tentáculos profundos na política e nos media, como visa também forçar o governo português a levar a cabo alterações na lei que protejam os judeus e Israel de toda e qualquer crítica. O grande objectivo no longo prazo, creio eu, é a eventual criminalização de toda e qualquer crítica ao Sionismo e a equiparação do anti-semitismo ao anti-sionismo, tal como já acontece em França.

    Portanto, meu caros compatriotas, ponham-se “a pau” e deixem-se de brincar com coisas sérias, pois eu garanto-vos que “a tribo” não brinca em serviço, é muito paciente e anda aí apenas à espera da oportunidade…

    https://verdade-proibida.blogspot.com/

  2. Years go go I did read some Russian books a memory of Russians who survive the jewish bolshevik coup 1917. One young boy in St. Petersburg was hidden in Orthodox Church when jewish commissars torchured priest. So they strip him naked, nailed his feet to the floor, his hands to the table, then they poured boiling water over his body and skin him a live. Took me two month to read this book,because was so horrible reading that’s eating your soul. What kind of torture they practice on women and children is unimaginable to human, because this jewish satan children are not human. Today this same psychopaths are in every white European government around the world owning the media, banking system and even opposition parties, what some of us really believe. Here is good documentary from Yuri Lina a Estonian historian documentary, just he does not mention the jews,just freemasons, but to me every jew is freemason, because jews created this sect to hide among us and some stupid goyim joined,because they want to be special.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuW-vNQsQI&t=11s

  3. The talmudic Communists succeded in Russia in 1917, but they failed in Hungary, Austria and Germany in 1918/19.

    Their next big and successful genocide was in Spain in 1935-36. Hitler and Franco stopped them, and Franco is synonymous with Hitler to this day.

    Now we can see how the Socialists ruling Spain are setting the country up for another civil war.

  4. What makes the communistic terror that is descending upon us even more ominous is the technology that they have at their disposal which renders any cybernetic tracking system they install almost complete.

    Brendon O’Connell has been at the forefront the last 5 or 6 years screaming about the ‘backdoors’ and ‘kill switches’ that are available to initiate or maintain any blackmailing operation. We can understand then possibly why they have been able to shut down basically every country in the world. Here is his latest:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCfJIPRqHAY

  5. I posted a video here a couple of days ago by Gang Stalking Australia titled, ‘The Coronavirus Is A Smokescreen For The New World Order.’ Well, YouTube shut down his channel and he was then visited by the Australian police; check this series of questions out:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ldQUtVa25Cw

      • well, since you changed the subject, check out the indefatigable Anagirfan today:

        http://aanirfan.blogspot.com/

        “Musk tweeted his opposition to California shuts downs as he wrote: ‘Hospitals in California have been half empty this whole time.’ ”

        great chart showing near vertical line “projections” and horizontal “actual data”

        Love that actual data!

        I always thought Elon Musk was kind of a self-promoting creep. But I am ready to take that back.

    • Don’t see anything under your last 2 videos, Ed in salt lake, but I’d love to hear the Australian Cheka’s questions.

      • They just came up, sorry Ed, I refreshed multiple times and it was just blank under your comments… I navigated to another tab, came back, and they then showed up.. absolutely disgusting what the police ask him, after saying that their visit is due to stuff he’s posting on the internet- “just poppin’ in to ask you if you need mental health services”. WOW, those cops should be ashamed. And that neighbor of his, who makes a pretty clearly threatening gesture as he drives by, is very lucky he’s in disarmed Australia.

  6. For readers without biases yet on communism or any other political direction, it is overwhelming if one gets aware of contrary literature, and it becomes hard to know what is true

    There is perhaps as much interesting alt-internet material denying alleged Red crimes as there are denials in the opposite political direction

    A Canadian wrote a detailed book claiming the Ukraine holodomor was fake, its sources dodgy

    When the Soviet archives were opened up after the fall of the Soviet Union, the massive numbers of Stalin’s alleged tens of millions of arrested and dead, apparently was far from being in full evidence

    Solzhenitsyn has been denounced with some credibility as a lie-creating opportunist … he was in fact first promoted by Nikita Khrushchev, getting a taste for fame and his eventual fortune

    Israel Shamir wrote a stunning essay describing his travels in Cambodia, he says the 1970s Cambodian genocide story appears to be a big hoax, pushed jointly by Vietnam to justify their invasion, and the USA trying to excuse its Vietnam horrors, and recounts Cambodians repeatedly telling him this

    An internaut cannot easily investigate alleged ‘primary sources’ which themselves may be fake

    Given how difficult it is to get narratives straight on even recent happenings, the historical stuff and strong claims are likely to just remain in a fog for most readers starting on a truth-quest … especially on anything since about 1913, the modern events in which we continue to be culturally invested, it’s damn hard for most people to know much of anything clearly

    One can come away with a feeling that left and right, and various national and ethnic interests, are throwing a lot of half-truth propaganda at each other and at us, the university historians partaking in this too … with a complex likelihood that some of it is true and some of it isn’t, and we can’t easily know which

    • We all have our biases (I am after all, RegretLeft) – but absolutely critical to start, proceed and end with your sentiment: “hard to know what is true”. One way to break thru that difficulty is to understand what contemporaries knew. The current post is a good one in that it assembles numerous quotations that establish that contemporaries – indeed contemporary Jewish commentators – KNEW that, essentially, the Russian revolution was a Jewish revolution.

      The post also mentions the famous case of W Duranty (presumably a non-Jewish fellow traveler) who lied and covered up Stalin’s Ukrainian artificial famine for American audiences. It is said that contemporary British journalists absolutely knew that he was lying and mocked him back in their clubs in London.

      Hitler knew in the 1930s that the Turks had caused the death circa 1915 of vast numbers of Armenians (by forced migration mostly) and marveled at their success. “Who now remembers the Armenians?” he is said to have remarked. Tho the evidence that he actually made the remark apparently is not strong; however, contemporary German diplomats and military officers in Constantinople KNEW that the Turks in the ruling clique were murdering the Armenians.

      Fast forward to 1996 and the brilliant British historian Orlando Figgs writes a 1,500 page tome: A People’s Tragedy; A History of the Russian Revolution. The question of foreign Jewish financing of the Bolsheviks is considered in two sentences. Three, actually, the last being something close to “the evidence is inconclusive”. End of story. Who should we believe? Prof Figgs’ 3 sentences or the contemporary commentators above?

      • The English bear as much responsibility as the Turks for the tragic fate of the Armenians. The Armenians were encouraged to revolt in order to distract the Turks from the English attack on the Turks at Gallipoli. The Armenian rising at Van in eastern Turkey began on April 23rd, 1915, and the English troops began landing two days later.
        The rising was quickly defeated by the Turks, who rightfully saw the Armenians as a disloyal element and began expelling them from the threatened Turkish eastern provinces. The Turks did not kill significant numbers of Armenian civilians, although Kurdish bandits did.
        Armenians of the time referred to their expulsion by the Turks as “The March” as in “Grandma and Grampa went on the march”. I have heard this exact phrase uttered by my old time Armenian friends. When they passed over the mountains and arrived in Syria, the unfortunate people found that the English navy was blockading Syria and no food was being allowed in. In spite of all pleas from American, Swiss and German Red Cross officials to allow the hungry refugees to be fed, the English refused point blank. And so, the Armenians starved.

    • One last thing meta-analysis wise: as we have seen, a mass murder with 28 alleged victims occurring on a single morning is easy to hoax. But once you get up to the 6 or 7 figure victim range, mass murders are neither easy (possible?) to hoax or to cover up.

      My sense is that the balance of scholarship both in Russia and the West (e.g. the major “Black book of Communism” effort at Yale) confirms that Stalin’s crimes occurred in pretty much the way that the now-standard historical accounts present. It is only the J Arch Gettys of the world who claim otherwise.

    • Brabantian- please quantify your statement regarding Solzhenitsyn. Who’s “denounced him with credibility as being a lie creating opportunist”? I’m asking your “credible” sources for this statement, because I don’t see much dissent on his statements aside from the occasional nitpicking of the numbers he claimed. So what if the sycophant Khrushchev promoted him- this was during the destalinization period and could easily be understood as a ploy from Khrushchev to garner support from the people. Also, Solzhenitsyn published most of his books outside of the USSR, angering the Soviet authorities. They basically kicked him out of the USSR from 1974-1990. But I guess that was just a public relations stunt, right? And what’s with your asinine comment- “A Canadian wrote a detailed book claiming the Ukraine holodomor was fake, its sources dodgy”? What value does that comment have exactly? To explain that there’s disinformation out there? No shit, Sherlock. Did it ever occur to you that the numbers-diminishing sources that have apparently convinced you that Stalin killed much less than the tens of millions claimed, is potentially (most likely) the disinformation you caution against? Does not the global MSM propaganda complex usually handle the past crimes of the Soviets with kids gloves, when compared to how they cover the nazis? You got some kind of slant, buddy. Read the following Solzhenitsyn quote and tell me which part is a lie, because I don’t see any.

      “You must understand, the leading Bolsheviks who took over Russia were not Russians. They hated Russians. They hated Christians. Driven by ethnic hatred they tortured and slaughtered millions of Russians without a shred of human remorse. It cannot be overstated. Bolshevism committed the greatest human slaughter of all time. The fact that most of the world is ignorant and uncaring about this enormous crime is proof that the global media is in the hands of the perpetrators.”

  7. Anybody doubting the connection between Judaism and Bolshevism, and in turn Israel and the USSR, isn’t paying attention. I’ll give you a more recent proof as to their alliance- his name is Jonathan Pollard. He spied on the USA, as an American citizen at the time, for Israel, giving them US nuclear weapons targets and codes, 10 NSA signals intelligence volumes (called the RASIN guide), among other highly classified documents. These documents have NEVER been returned to the USA by Israel so that US authorities could assess the damage. In fact this classified information was forwarded on to the USSR by Israel, proving their connection. Pollard received a life sentence for his espionage, but was paroled after 30 years. He was approved Israeli citizenship by the Knesset, and now comfortably resides there as a national hero, with buildings and public squares named after him.

    • Point taken … but it’s a complicated world. Egypt, Syria, Iraq, etc were to a considerable extent client states of the Soviet Union in the 1950s, 60s, 70s. It was Soviet arms that came close to allowing them to make the State of Israel “history” in 1967 and 1973 – and perhaps it was our own LBJ who demanded in 1973 that the IDF not chase the retreating Egyptian tanks all the way back to Cairo. (a little “Liberty” face saving? – who knows!)

      Maybe the crime syndicate just likes war and prefers them to end indecisively.

      At a minimum, I think this was a very timely and interesting “let’s-change-the-topic” post.

  8. When Putin said that 80-85% of Bolshevik leaders were Jews, he was prevaricating. Truth to tell, it was closer to 95%. Both Lenin and Stalin were Jews. The full proof of this is beyond the scope of a short post, but consider the following evidence.

    Lenin was married to a Jewish woman, Krupskaya. Assimilationist marriages were quite rare in the 19th Century. Even as late as the 1920’s Rabbi Steven Wise, spiritual head of American Jewry, forbade assimilationist marriages to Jews in a New York Times front-page article.

    The language of Lenin’s household was Yiddish. No Russian would know Yiddish, or have much desire to learn. When Lenin’s children arrived in Russia, they spoke Yiddish as their first language, and German and their second. They knew only a few words of Russian. Had their father actually been a Russian, Russian would have been their first language.

    Lenin frequently issued proclamations in Yiddish- these were large posters plastered up in Petrograd’s prominent places No Russian would have been stupid enough to issue proclamations in Yiddish.

    But haw about Stalin and his alleged anti-semitism? This is all a bullshit smokescreen to distance Jews from the worlds greatest mass murderer, who was in fact one of their own. Stalin was anti-Zioinist, without a doubt. Until 1945 he had the undivided loyalty of the world’s Jews, and then they began sneaking off to Palestine. This enraged him.

    There were five women who figured prominently in Stalin’s life- all were Jewish. He named his first son Yacub, which would have been a great social handicap if Yacub had not been a Jew. Both Stalin’s sons married Jewish women.

    When Winston Churchill visited Stalin in 1942, Stalin gifted him a black yarmulke.

    Look at how hard Jewish historians like Simon Montefiore and J. Arch Getty work at rehabilitating Stalin. Both have made it into their life’s work. Neither would lift a finger to rehabilitate a Christian.

    • According to history I have read (including a book titled “Stalin”, forgot the author), Stalin (not his real name), a Georgian born to liberated serfs last name Djugashvilli (spelling?) was born into an Orthodox Christian family (and what Jews would be serfs anyway?), went to study at some monastery to become a priest but then turned against Christianity. Did he convert to Talmudic Judaism? Not in the history books, but that could be the case, even though most of the folks imprisoned during the Moscow Trials were Jewish including the Jewish original founder of the Cheka (Yagoda?) But yes, he did marry Jews and so did his offspring. Lenin (Ulyanov), of course, was Jewish as was Trotsky (Bronstein). The leader of the Holodomor, Malenkov, was also Jewish (he replaced Stalin in 1953, until Krushchev took over in 1955 or 1956 (when they “deStalinized” the Soviet Union).

      • Stalin did attend the seminary in Tiflis. It was exactly as much of a religious school as Harvard was. The ‘studying to be a priest’ meme is just cynical communist humor. Stalin’s bio was completely scrubbed, and a false one substituted, something he shared with virtually all the Bolsheviks- they lied about their family origins, changed their names to appear to be Russians, lied, lied, lied. The lying still continues to this very day, as Stalin’s exclusively Jewish biographers are busy rewriting history.

    • Interesting. Lenin’s possible Jewish background has long been a source of scholarly consideration – typically dismissive, of course, Haven’t seen similar speculation on Stalin.

      It may well have been Stalin who, at the crucial moment, made the State of Israel possible. That is, by directing the still-intact Czech arms industry to ship arms to Jewish forces in 1948 engaged in a desperate and losing battle with the various Arab armed forces; those arms and munitions may have turned the tide.

      The typical explanation given for that action is that Stalin wanted to make life difficult for the British who at the time were engaged in their own desperate struggle to maintain their imperial presence in the area. (Shades of Balfour)

      Still, the purges of the 1930s were, necessarily, anti-Jewish in nature (who else was there to purge?!). Yet Stalin was very careful not to characterize them as such; the dynamic was always: “enemies of the party”.

      There are remarks in Joseph Goebbels’ voluminous diaries circa 1937,38 that show he was clearly aware of the anti-Jewish nature of the purges; to the effect – hey! this is interesting, we’ll have to keep an eye on this. But nothing came of it; the Jewish Bolsheviki equation / war of annihilation dynamic was fully fixed in Hitler’s mind and there was no going back.

      The Wehrmacht was greeted as liberators in Western Russia in 1941; I have often wondered whether, if Hitler had allowed them to be more “subtle” and had held back the SS Einsatzgruppen, the outcome of Barbarossa might have been much different.

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